ALTO WG

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                          W. Roome
Internet-Draft
Request for Comments: 9240                                S. Randriamasy
Intended status:
Category: Standards Track                                Nokia Bell Labs
Expires: 1 September 2022
ISSN: 2070-1721                                                  Y. Yang
                                                         Yale University
                                                                J. Zhang
                                                       Tongji University
                                                                  K. Gao
                                                      Sichuan University
                                                        28 February
                                                                May 2022

                An ALTO Extension: Entity Property Maps
                  draft-ietf-alto-unified-props-new-24

Abstract

   This document specifies an extension to the base Application-Layer
   Traffic Optimization (ALTO) protocol Protocol that generalizes the concept of
   "endpoint properties", which were so far have been tied to IP addresses, addresses so far,
   to entities defined by a wide set of objects.  Further, these
   properties are presented as maps, similar to the network and cost
   maps in the base ALTO protocol. Protocol.  While supporting the endpoints and
   related
   endpoint property service Endpoint Property Service defined in RFC7285, RFC 7285, the ALTO protocol
   Protocol is extended in two major directions.  First, from endpoints
   restricted to IP addresses to entities covering a wider and
   extensible set of objects; second, from properties on for specific
   endpoints to entire entity property maps.  These extensions introduce
   additional features
   allowing that allow entities and property values to be
   specific to a given information resource.  This is made possible by a
   generic and flexible design of entity and property types.

Status of This Memo

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on 1 September 2022.
   https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9240.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     1.1.  Terminology and notation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6 Notation
   2.  Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   3.  Basic Features of the Entity Property Map Extension . . . . .   7
     3.1.  Entity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.2.  Entity Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       3.2.1.  Entity Domain Type  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       3.2.2.  Entity Domain Name  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.3.  Entity Property Type  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     3.4.  New Information Resource and Media Type: ALTO Property Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   4.  Advanced Features of the Entity Property Map Extension  . . .  10
     4.1.  Entity Identifier and Entity Domain Name  . . . . . . . .  10
     4.2.  Resource-Specific Entity Domain Name  . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.3.  Resource-Specific Entity Property Value . . . . . . . . .  12
     4.4.  Entity Hierarchy and Property Inheritance . . . . . . . .  13
       4.4.1.  Entity Hierarchy  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       4.4.2.  Property Inheritance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       4.4.3.  Property Value Unicity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     4.5.  Supported Properties on for Entity Domains in Property Map
           Capabilities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     4.6.  Defining Information Resource for Resource-Specific Entity
           Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       4.6.1.  Defining Information Resource and its Its Media Type  . .  16
       4.6.2.  Examples of Defining Information Resources and Their
               Media Type  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17 Types
     4.7.  Defining Information Resource Resources for Resource-Specific
           Property Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
   5.  Protocol Specification: Basic Data Types  . . . . . . . . . .  19
     5.1.  Entity Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       5.1.1.  Entity Domain Type  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       5.1.2.  Entity Domain Name  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
       5.1.3.  Entity Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
       5.1.4.  Hierarchy and Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     5.2.  Entity Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
       5.2.1.  Entity Property Type  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
       5.2.2.  Entity Property Name  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
       5.2.3.  Format for Entity Property Value  . . . . . . . . . .  25
   6.  Entity Domain Types Defined in this This Document  . . . . . . . .  25
     6.1.  Internet Address Domain Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
       6.1.1.  Entity Domain Type: IPv4  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
       6.1.2.  Entity Domain Type: IPv6  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
       6.1.3.  Hierarchy and Inheritance of Internet Address Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
       6.1.4.  Defining Information Resource Media Type for domain
               types Domain
               Types IPv4 and IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     6.2.  Entity Domain Type: PID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
       6.2.1.  Entity Domain Type Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
       6.2.2.  Domain-Specific Entity Identifiers  . . . . . . . . .  28
       6.2.3.  Hierarchy and Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
       6.2.4.  Defining Information Resource Media Type for Domain
               Type PID  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
       6.2.5.  Relationship To Internet Addresses Domains  . . . . .  29
     6.3.  Internet Address Properties vs. PID Properties  . . . . .  29
   7.  Property Map  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
     7.1.  Media Type  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
     7.2.  HTTP Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
     7.3.  Accept Input Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
     7.4.  Capabilities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
     7.5.  Uses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
     7.6.  Response  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
   8.  Filtered Property Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     8.1.  Media Type  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     8.2.  HTTP Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     8.3.  Accept Input Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     8.4.  Capabilities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     8.5.  Uses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     8.6.  Filtered Property Map Response  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     8.7.  Entity Property Type Defined in This Document . . . . . .  36
       8.7.1.  Entity Property Type: pid . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
   9.  Impact on Legacy ALTO Servers and ALTO Clients  . . . . . . .  37
     9.1.  Impact on Endpoint Property Service . . . . . . . . . . .  37
     9.2.  Impact on Resource-Specific Properties  . . . . . . . . .  37
     9.3.  Impact on Other Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
   10. Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
     10.1.  Network Map  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
     10.2.  Property Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
     10.3.  Information Resource Directory (IRD) . . . . . . . . . .  39
     10.4.  Full Property Map Example  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
     10.5.  Filtered Property Map Example #1 . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
     10.6.  Filtered Property Map Example #2 . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
     10.7.  Filtered Property Map Example #3 . . . . . . . . . . . .  45
     10.8.  Filtered Property Map Example #4 . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
     10.9.  Filtered Property Map for ANEs Example #5  . . . . . . .  47
   11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  48
   12. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  50
     12.1.  application/alto-propmap+json Media Type . . . . . . . .  51
     12.2.  alto-propmapparams+json Media Type . . . . . . . . . . .  52
     12.3.  ALTO Entity Domain Type Types Registry . . . . . . . . . . . .  53
       12.3.1.  Consistency Procedure between ALTO Address Type Types
               Registry and ALTO Entity Domain Type Types Registry . . . .  54
       12.3.2.  ALTO Entity Domain Type Registration Process . . . .  56
     12.4.  ALTO Entity Property Type Types Registry . . . . . . . . . . .  57
   13. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  58
   14. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  59
     14.1.
     13.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  59
     14.2.
     13.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  60
   Appendix A.  Features introduced Introduced with the Entity Property Maps
           extension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  61
           Extension
   Acknowledgments
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  62

1.  Introduction

   The ALTO protocol Protocol [RFC7285] introduces the concept of "properties"
   attached to "endpoint addresses".  It also defines the Endpoint
   Property Service (EPS) to allow ALTO clients to retrieve those
   properties.  While useful, the EPS, EPS as defined in [RFC7285], [RFC7285] has at
   least three limitations that limitations, which are further elaborated hereafter. here.

   First, the EPS allows properties to be associated with only with endpoints
   that are identified by individual communication addresses like IPv4
   and IPv6 addresses.  It is reasonable to think that collections of
   endpoints or Provider-Defined Identifiers (PIDs), may also have
   properties.  Furthermore, recent ALTO use cases show that properties
   of entities such as abstracted network elements Abstract Network Elements as defined in
   [I-D.ietf-alto-path-vector]
   [PATH-VECTOR] are also useful.  However, the current EPS is
   restricted to individual endpoints and cannot be applied to those
   entities.

   Second, the EPS only allows endpoints identified by global
   communication addresses.  However, an endpoint address may be a local
   IP address or an anycast IP address that may not be globally unique.
   Additionally, an entity such as a PID may have an identifier that is
   not globally unique.  That is, a the same PID may be used in multiple
   network maps, while in each network map, this PID points to a
   different set of addresses.

   Third, in section Section 11.4 of [RFC7285], the EPS is only defined as a
   POST-mode service.  ALTO clients must request the properties for an
   explicit set of endpoint addresses.  By contrast, [RFC7285], in
   section 11.2.3, Section 11.2.3 of
   [RFC7285] defines a GET-mode cost map resource which that returns all
   available costs, so an ALTO Client can retrieve a full set of costs once,
   once and then process cost lookups without querying the ALTO server.
   [RFC7285] does not define a similar service for endpoint properties.
   At first, a map of endpoint properties might seem
   impractical, impractical because
   it could require enumerating the property value for every possible
   endpoint.  In particular, the number of endpoint addresses involved
   by an ALTO server can be quite large.  To avoid enumerating a large
   number of endpoint addresses inefficiently, the ALTO server might
   define properties for a sufficiently large subset of endpoints and
   uses an aggregation representation to reference endpoints to allow
   efficient enumeration.  This is particularly true if blocks of
   endpoint addresses with a common prefix have the same value for a
   property.  Entities in other domains may very well allow aggregated
   representation and hence be enumerable as well.

   To address these three limitations, this document specifies an ALTO
   protocol
   Protocol extension for defining and retrieving ALTO properties:

   *  The first limitation is addressed by introducing a generic concept
      called ALTO Entity, which generalizes an endpoint and may
      represent a PID, a network element, a cell in a cellular network,
      an abstracted network element [I-D.ietf-alto-path-vector], Abstract Network Element [PATH-VECTOR], or other physical or
      logical objects involved in a network topology.  Each entity is
      included in a collection called an ALTO entity domain.  Since each
      ALTO entity domain includes only one type of
      entities, entity, each entity
      domain can be classified by the type of enclosed entities.

   *  The second limitation is addressed by using resource-specific
      entity domains.  A resource-specific entity domain contains
      entities that are defined and identified with respect to a given
      ALTO information resource, which provides scoping.  For example,
      an entity domain containing PIDs is identified with respect to the
      network map in which these PIDs are defined.  Likewise, an entity
      domain containing local IP addresses may be defined with respect
      to a local network map.

   *  The third limitation is addressed by defining two new types of
      ALTO information resources: Property Map (Section 7) and Filtered
      Property Map (Section 8).  The former is a resource that is
      requested using the HTTP GET method, returns the property values
      for all entities in one or more entity domains, and is analogous
      to a network map or a cost map in Section 11.2 of [RFC7285].  The
      latter is a resource that that is requested using the HTTP POST method,
      returns the values for sets of properties and entities requested
      by the client, and is analogous to a filtered network map or a
      filtered cost map.

   The Entity Property Maps extension described in this document
   introduces a number of features that are summarized in Appendix A,
   where Table 4 lists the features and references the sections in this
   document that give their high-level and their normative description. descriptions.

   The protocol extension defined in this document is augmentable. can be augmented.
   New entity domain types can be defined without revising the present
   specification.  Similarly, new cost metrics and new endpoint
   properties can be defined in other documents without revising the
   protocol specification defined in [RFC7285].

1.1.  Terminology and notation Notation

   This document uses the following terms and abbreviations, abbreviations that will be
   further defined in the document.  While this document introduces the
   feature "entity property map", it will use both the term "property
   map" and "entity property map" to refer to this feature.

   *

   Transaction:  A request/response exchange between an ALTO client and
      an ALTO server.

   *

   Client:  When used with a capital "C", this term refers to an ALTO
      client.  Note that expressions "ALTO client", "ALTO Client" Client", and
      "Client" are equivalent.

   *

   Server:  When used with a capital "S", this term refers to an ALTO
      server.  Note that expressions "ALTO server", "ALTO Server" Server", and
      "Server" are equivalent.

   *

   EPS:  An abbreviation for Endpoint Property Service.

   This document uses the semi-formal notation defined in Section 8.2 of [RFC7285].

2.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.  When the words appear in lower case, they
   are to be interpreted with their natural language meanings.

3.  Basic Features of the Entity Property Map Extension

   This section gives a high-level overview of the basic features
   involved in ALTO Entity Property Maps.  It assumes the reader is
   familiar with the ALTO protocol Protocol [RFC7285].  The purpose of this
   extension is to convey properties on for objects that extend ALTO
   Endpoints
   endpoints and are called ALTO Entities, or entities for short.

   The features introduced in this section can be used as standalone.
   However, in some cases, these features may depend on particular
   information resources and need to be defined with respect to them.
   To this end, Section 4 introduces additional features that extend the
   ones presented in the present this section.

3.1.  Entity

   The concept of an ALTO Entity generalizes the concept of an ALTO
   Endpoint
   endpoint defined in Section 2.1 of [RFC7285].  An entity is an object
   that can be an endpoint defined by its network address, but it can
   also be an object that has a defined mapping to a set of one or more
   network addresses or an object that is not even related to any
   network address.  Thus, whereas all endpoints are entities, not all
   entities are endpoints.

   Examples of entities are:

   *  an ALTO endpoint that represents an application or a host
      identified by a communication address (e.g., an IPv4 or IPv6
      address) in a network,

   *  a PID, defined in [RFC7285], that has a provider defined provider-defined, human-
      readable identifier specified by an ALTO network map, which maps a
      PID to a set of IPv4 and IPv6 addresses,

   *  an Autonomous System (AS), (AS) that has an AS number (ASN) as its
      identifier and maps to a set of IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, that which is
      defined in [I-D.ietf-alto-cdni-request-routing-alto], [RFC9241],

   *  a country with a code specified in [ISO3166-1], [ISO3166-1] to which
      applications such as CDN content delivery network (CDN) providers
      associate properties and capabilities, that which is defined in
      [I-D.ietf-alto-cdni-request-routing-alto],
      [RFC9241],

   *  a TCP/UDP network flow, flow that is identified by a TCP/UDP 5-tuple
      specifying its source and destination addresses and port numbers,
      and the IP protocol,

   *  a routing element, that is as specified in [RFC7921] and [RFC7921], that is associated
      with routing capabilities information, or

   *  an abstract network element, that is Abstract Network Element, as specified in
      [I-D.ietf-alto-path-vector] and [PATH-VECTOR], that
      represents an abstraction of a network part such as a router, one
      or more links, a network
      domain domain, or their aggregation.

   Some of the example entities listed above have already been
   documented as ALTO entities.  The other examples are provided for
   illustration as potential entities.

3.2.  Entity Domain

   An entity domain defines a set of entities of the same semantic type.
   An entity domain is characterized by a type and identified by a name.

   In this document, an entity is owned by exactly one entity domain
   name.  An entity identifier points to exactly one entity.  If two
   entities in two different entity domains refer to the same physical
   or logical object, they are treated as different entities.  For
   example, if an end host has both an IPv4 and an IPv6 address, these
   two addresses will be treated as two entities, defined respectively
   in the "ipv4" and "ipv6" entity domains.

3.2.1.  Entity Domain Type

   The type of an entity domain type defines the semantics of a type of
   entity.  Entity domain types can be defined in different documents.
   For example: the present document defines entity domain types "ipv4",
   "ipv6" "ipv4"
   and "pid" "ipv6" in Section 6.1 and "pid" in Section 6.2.  The entity
   domain type "ane", that which defines Abstract Network Elements (ANEs), is
   introduced in [I-D.ietf-alto-path-vector]. [PATH-VECTOR].  The entity domain type that defines
   country codes is introduced in
   [I-D.ietf-alto-cdni-request-routing-alto]. [RFC9241].  An entity domain type MUST
   be registered at the with IANA, as specified in Section 12.3.2.

3.2.2.  Entity Domain Name

   In this document, the identifier of an entity domain is mostly called
   "entity domain name".  The identifier of an entity domain is defined
   in the scope of an ALTO server.  An entity domain identifier can
   sometimes be identical to the identifier of its relevant entity
   domain type.  This is the case when the entities of a domain have an
   identifier that points to the same object throughout all the
   information resources of the Server that provide entity properties
   for this domain.  For example, a domain of type "ipv4" containing
   entities that are identified by a public IPv4 address can be named
   "ipv4" because its entities are uniquely identified by all the Server
   resources.

   In some cases, the name of an entity domain cannot be simply its
   entity domain type.  Indeed, for some domain types, entities are
   defined relative to a given information resource.  This is the case
   for entities of domain type "pid".  A PID is defined relative to a
   network map.  For example, an entity "mypid10" of domain type "pid"
   may be defined in a given network map and be undefined in other
   network maps.  Or  The entity "mypid10" may even be defined in two
   different network maps maps, and map, it may map in each of these network maps, maps
   to a different set of endpoint addresses.  In this case, naming an
   entity domain only by its type "pid" does not guarantee that its set
   of entities is owned by exactly one entity domain.

   Section

   Sections 4.2 and Section 5.1.2 describe how a domain is uniquely
   identified, identified
   across the ALTO server, server by a name that associates the domain type and
   the related information resource.

3.3.  Entity Property Type

   An entity property defines a property of an entity.  This is similar
   to the endpoint property defined in Section 7.1 of [RFC7285].  An
   entity property can convey either network-aware or network-agnostic
   information.  Similar to an entity domain, an entity property is
   characterized by a type and identified by a name.  An entity property
   type MUST be registered at the with IANA, as specified in Section 12.4.

   Below are listed some examples with real and fictitious entity domain
   and property names:

   *  an entity in the "ipv4" domain type may have a property whose
      value is an Autonomous System (AS) number indicating the AS to
      which this IPv4 address belongs and another property named
      "countrycode" indicating a country code mapping to this address,

   *  an entity identified by its country code in the entity domain type
      "countrycode", defined in
      [I-D.ietf-alto-cdni-request-routing-alto] [RFC9241], may have a property
      indicating what delivery protocol is used by a CDN, or

   *  an entity in the "netmap1.pid" domain may have a property that
      indicates the central geographical location of the endpoints it
      includes.

   It should be noted that some identifiers may be used for both an
   entity domain type and a property type.  For example:

   *  the identifier "countrycode" may point to both the entity domain
      type "countrycode" and the fictitious property type "countrycode".

   *  the identifier "pid" may point to both the entity domain type
      "pid" and the property type "pid".

   Likewise, the same identifier may point to both a domain name and a
   property name.  For example: the identifier "netmap10.pid" may point
   to either the domain defined by the PIDs of network map "netmap10" or
   to a property that returns, for an entity defined by its IPv4
   address, the PID of netmap10 "netmap10" that contains this entity.  Such cases
   will be
   are further explained in Section 4.

3.4.  New Information Resource and Media Type: ALTO Property Map

   This document introduces a new ALTO information resource named
   Property Map. An ALTO property map provides a set of properties on for
   one or more sets of entities.  A property may apply to different
   entity domain types and names.  For example, an ALTO property map may
   define the "ASN" property for both "ipv4" and "ipv6" entity domains.

   The present extension also introduces a new media type.

   This document uses the same definition of an information resource as
   Section 9.1 of [RFC7285].  ALTO uses media types to uniquely indicate
   the data format used to encode the content to be transmitted between
   an ALTO server and an ALTO client in the HTTP entity body.  In the
   present case, an ALTO property map resource is defined by the media
   type "application/alto-propmap+json".

   A Property Map can be queried as a GET-mode resource, thus conveying
   all properties on for all entities indicated in its capabilities.  It
   can also be queried as a POST-mode resource, thus conveying a
   selection of properties on for a selection of entities.

4.  Advanced Features of the Entity Property Map Extension

   This section gives a high-level overview of the advanced features
   involved in ALTO Entity Property Maps.  Most of these features are
   defined to extend
   the ones features defined in Section 3.

4.1.  Entity Identifier and Entity Domain Name

   In [RFC7285], an endpoint has an identifier that is explicitly
   associated with the "ipv4" or "ipv6" address domain.  Examples are
   "ipv4:192.0.2.14" and "ipv6:2001:db8::12".

   In this document, example IPv4 and IPv6 addresses and prefixes are
   taken from the address ranges reserved for documentation by [RFC5737]
   and [RFC3849].

   In this document, an entity must be owned by exactly one entity
   domain name name, and an entity identifier must point to exactly one
   entity.  To ensure this, an entity identifier is explicitly attached
   to the name of its entity domain domain, and an entity domain type
   characterizes the semantics and identifier format of its entities.

   The encoding format of an entity identifier is further specified in
   Section 5.1.3 of this document.

   For instance:

   *  if an entity is an endpoint with IPv4 address "192.0.2.14", its
      identifier is associated with entity domain name "ipv4" and is
      "ipv4:192.0.2.14",
      "ipv4:192.0.2.14";

   *  if an entity is a PID named "mypid10" in network map resource
      "netmap2", its identifier is associated with entity domain name
      "netmap2.pid" and is "netmap2.pid:mypid10".

4.2.  Resource-Specific Entity Domain Name

   Some entities are defined and identified uniquely and globally in the
   context of an ALTO server.  This is the case case, for instance instance, when
   entities are endpoints that are identified by a reachable IPv4 or
   IPv6 address.  The entity domain for such entities can be globally
   defined and named "ipv4" or "ipv6".  Those entity domains are called
   resource-agnostic entity domains in this document, as they are not
   associated with any specific ALTO information resources.

   Some other entities and entity types are only defined relative to a
   given information resource.  This is the case for entities of domain
   type "pid", that which can only be understood with respect to the network
   map where they are defined.  For example, a PID named "mypid10" may
   be defined to represent a set S1 of IP addresses in a network map
   resource named "netmap1".  Another network map "netmap2" may use the
   same name "mypid10" and define it to represent another set S2 of IP
   addresses.  The identifier "pid:mypid10" may thus point to different
   objects because the information on the originating information
   resource is lost.

   To solve this ambiguity, the present extension introduces the concept
   of resources-specific resource-specific entity domain.  This concept applies to domain
   types where entities are defined relative to a given information
   resource.  It can also apply to entity domains that are defined
   locally, such as local networks of objects identified with a local
   IPv4 address.

   In such cases, an entity domain type is explicitly associated with an
   identifier of the information resource where these entities are
   defined.  Such an information resource is referred to as the
   "specific information resource".  Using a resource-aware entity
   domain name, an ALTO property map can unambiguously identify distinct
   entity domains of the same type, on which entity properties may be
   queried.  Examples of resource-specific entity domain names may look
   like:
   like "netmap1.pid" or "netmap2.pid".  Thus, a name association such
   as "netmap1.pid:mypid10" and "netmap2.pid:mypid10" allows to
   distinguish distinguishes the
   two abovementioned PIDs that are both named "mypid10" but in two
   different resources, "netmap1" and "netmap2".

   An information resource is defined in the scope of an ALTO Server and
   so is an entity domain name.  The format of a resource-specific
   entity domain name is further specified in Section 5.1.2.

4.3.  Resource-Specific Entity Property Value

   Like entity domains, some types of properties are defined relative to
   an information resource.  That is, an entity may have a property of a
   given type, type whose values are associated to with different information
   resources.

   For example, suppose entity "192.0.2.34" defined in the "ipv4" domain
   has a property of type "pid", "pid" whose value is the PID to which address
   "192.0.2.34" is attached in a network map.  The mapping of network
   addresses to PIDs is specific to a network map and probably different
   from one network map resource to another one.  Thus, if a property
   "pid" is defined for entity "192.0.2.34" in two different network
   maps "netmap1" and "netmap2", the value for this property can be a
   different value in "netmap1" and "netmap2".

   To support information resource dependent information-resource-dependent property values, this
   document uses the same approach as in Section 10.8.1 of [RFC7285]
   entitled "Resource-Specific
   ("Resource-Specific Endpoint Properties". Properties") of [RFC7285].  When a
   property value depends on a given information resource, the name of
   this property MUST be explicitly associated with the information
   resource that defines it.

   For example, the property "pid" queried on entity "ipv4:192.0.2.34"
   and defined in both "netmap1" and "netmap2", "netmap2" can be named
   "netmap1.pid" and "netmap2.pid".  This allows a Client to get a
   property of the same type but defined in different information
   resources with a single query.  Specifications on for the property name
   format are provided in Section 5.2.

4.4.  Entity Hierarchy and Property Inheritance

   For some domain types, there is an underlying structure that allows
   entities to efficiently be efficiently grouped into a set and be defined by the
   identifier of this set.  This is the case for domain types "ipv4" and
   "ipv6", where individual Internet addresses can be grouped in blocks.
   When the same property value applies to a whole set, a Server can
   define a property for the identifier of this set instead of
   enumerating all the entities and their properties.  This allows a
   substantial reduction of transmission payload both for the Server and
   the Client.  For example, all the entities included in the set
   defined by the address block "ipv6:2001:db8::1/64" share the same
   properties and values defined for this block.

   Additionally, entity sets sometimes are related by inclusion,
   hierarchy
   hierarchy, or other relations.  This allows defining inheritance
   rules for entity properties that propagate properties among related
   entity sets.  The Server and the Client can use these inheritance
   rules for further payload savings.  Entity hierarchy and property
   inheritance rules are specified in the documents that define the
   applicable domain types.  The present document defines these rules
   for the "ipv4" and "ipv6" domain types.

   This document introduces, for

   For applicable domain types, this document introduces "Entity
   Property Inheritance rules", rules" with the following concepts: Entity
   Hierarchy, Property Inheritance Inheritance, and Property Value Unicity.  A
   detailed specification of entity hierarchy and property inheritance
   rules is provided in Section 5.1.4.

4.4.1.  Entity Hierarchy

   An entity domain may allow using the use of a single identifier to identify
   a set of related individual entities.  For example, a CIDR Classless
   Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) block can be used to identify a set of
   IPv4 or IPv6 entities.  A CIDR block is called a hierarchical entity
   identifier, as it can reflect inclusion relations among entity sets.
   That is, in an entity hierarchy, "supersets" are defined at upper
   levels and include "subsets" defined at lower levels." levels.  For example,
   the CIDR "ipv4:192.0.1.0/24" includes all the individual IPv4
   entities identified by the CIDR "ipv4:192.0.1.0/26".  This document
   will sometimes use the term "hierarchical address" to refer to a
   hierarchical entity identifier.

4.4.2.  Property Inheritance

   A property may be defined for a hierarchical entity identifier, while
   it may be undefined for individual entities covered by this
   identifier.  In this case, these individual entities inherit the
   property value defined for the identifier that covers them.  For
   example, suppose a property map defines a property P for which it
   assigns value V1 only for the hierarchical entity identifier
   "ipv4:192.0.1.0/24" but not for individual entities in this block.
   Suppose also that inheritance rules are specified for CIDR blocks in
   the "ipv4" domain type.  When receiving this property map, a Client
   can infer that entity "ipv4:192.0.1.1" inherits the property value V1
   of block "ipv4:192.0.1.0/24" because the address "ipv4:192.0.1.1" is
   included in the CIDR block "ipv4:192.0.1.0/24".

   Property value inheritance rules also apply among entity sets.  A
   property map may define values for an entity set belonging to a
   hierarchy but not for "subsets" that are covered by this set
   identifier.  In this case, inheritance rules must specify how
   entities in "subsets" inherit property values from their "superset".
   For instance, suppose a property P is defined only for the entity set
   defined by address block "ipv4:192.0.1.0/24".  We know that entity
   set "ipv4:192.0.1.0/30" is included in "ipv4:192.0.1.0/24".
   Therefore, the entities of "ipv4:192.0.1.0/30" may inherit the value
   of property P from set "ipv4:192.0.1.0/24", "ipv4:192.0.1.0/24" if an inheritance rule
   from "ipv4" CIDR blocks to included "ipv4" CIDR blocks, blocks is specified.

4.4.3.  Property Value Unicity

   The inheritance rules must ensure that an entity belonging to a
   hierarchical set of entities inherits no more than one property
   value, for the sake of consistency.  Indeed, a property map may
   define a property on for a hierarchy of entity sets that inherit inherits
   property values from one or more supersets (located at upper levels).
   On the other hand, a property value, value defined on for a subset (located at
   a lower level) may be different from the value defined on for a
   superset.  In such a case, subsets may potentially end up with
   different property values.  This may be the case for address blocs blocks
   with increasing prefix length, on which a property value gets becomes
   increasingly accurate and thus may differ.  For example, a fictitious
   property such as "geo-location" or "average transfer volume" may be
   defined at a progressively finer grain for lower level lower-level subsets of entities,
   entities defined with progressively longer CIDR prefixes.  It seems
   more interesting to have property values of progressively higher
   accuracy.  A unicity rule, rule applied to the entity domain type must
   specify an arbitration rule among the different property values for
   an entity.  An example illustrating the need for such rules is
   provided in Section 6.1.3.

4.5.  Supported Properties on for Entity Domains in Property Map
      Capabilities

   A property type is not necessarily applicable to any domain type, or
   an ALTO Server may choose not to provide a property on for all
   applicable domains.  For instance, a property type reflecting link
   bandwidth is likely not defined on for entities of a domain of type
   "countrycode".  Therefore, an ALTO server providing Property Maps
   needs to specify the properties that can be queried on the different
   entity domains it supports.

   This document explains how the Information Resources Resource Directory (IRD)
   capabilities of a Property Map resource unambiguously expose what which
   properties a Client can query on a given entity domain:

   *  a field named "mappings" lists the names of the entity domains
      supported by the Property Map, and

   *  for each listed entity domain, a list of the names of the
      applicable properties is provided.

   An example is provided in Section 10.3.  The "mappings" field
   associates entity domains and properties that can be resource-
   agnostic or resource-specific.  This allows a Client to formulate
   compact and unambiguous entity property queries, possibly relating to
   one or more information resources.  In particular:

   *  it prevents a Client from querying a property on for entity domains on
      for which it is not defined, defined;

   *  it allows a Client to query, for an entity E, values for a
      property P that are defined in several information resources, resources; and

   *  it allows a Client to query a property P on entities that are
      defined in several information resources.

   Further details are provided in Section 7.4.

4.6.  Defining Information Resource for Resource-Specific Entity Domains

   A Client willing to query entity properties on entities belonging to a domain
   needs to know how to retrieve these entities.  To this end, the
   Client can look up the "mappings" field exposed in IRD capabilities
   of a property map, map; see Section 4.5.  This field, in its keys, exposes
   all the entity domains supported by the property map.  The syntax of
   the entity domain identifier specified in Section 5.1.2 allows the
   client to infer whether the entity domain is resource-
   specific resource-specific or
   not.  The Client can extract, if applicable, the identifier of the
   specific resource, query the resource resource, and retrieve the entities.
   For example:

   *  an entity domain named "netmap1.ipv4" includes the IPv4 addresses
      that appear in the "ipv4" field of the endpoint address group of
      each PID in the network map "netmap1", "netmap1" and that have no meaning
      outside "netmap1" because, for instance, these are local addresses
      not reachable outside some private network, network;

   *  an entity domain named "netmap1.pid" includes the PIDs listed in
      network map "netmap1". "netmap1"; and

   *  an entity domain named "ipv4" is resource-agnostic and covers all
      the reachable IPv4 addresses.

   Besides, it is not possible to prevent a Server from mistakenly
   exposing inappropriate associations of information resources and
   entity domain types.  To prevent failures due to invalid queries, it
   is necessary to inform the Client about which associations are allowed.  An
   informed Client will just ignore inappropriate associations exposed
   by a Server and avoid error-prone transactions with the Server.

   For example, the association "costmap3.pid" is not allowed for the
   following reason: although a cost map exposes PID identifiers, it
   does not define the set of addresses included in this PID.  Neither
   does a cost map list all the PIDs on which properties can be queried, queried
   because a cost map only exposes PID pairs on which a queried cost
   type is defined.  Therefore, the resource "costmap3" does not enable
   a Client to extract information on the existing PID entities or on
   the addresses they contain.

   Instead, the cost map uses a network map, map where all the PIDs used in a
   cost map are defined together with the addresses contained by the
   PIDs.  This network map is qualified in this document as the Defining
   Information Resource for the entity domain of type "pid" "pid", and this
   concept is explained in Section 4.6.1.

4.6.1.  Defining Information Resource and its Its Media Type

   For the reasons explained in Section 4.6, this document introduces
   the concept of "Defining Information Resource and its Media Type".

   A defining information resource for an entity domain D is the
   information resource where entities of D are defined.  That is, all
   the information on the entities of D can be retrieved in this
   resource.  A defining information resource is defined for resource-
   specific entity domains.  It does not exist for entity domains that
   are not resource-specific such as "ipv4" or "ipv6".  Neither does it
   exist for entity domains that are covering entity identifiers already
   defined in other standardization documents, at it as is the case for
   country code identifiers standardized in [ISO3166-1] or AS numbers
   allocated by the IANA.  This is useful for entity domain types that are
   by essence domain-specific, such as the "pid" domain type.  It is
   also useful for resource-specific entity domains constructed from
   resource-agnostic domain types, such as network map specific network-map-specific domains
   of local IPv4 addresses.

   The defining information resource of a resource-specific entity
   domain D, when it exists, is unique and has the following
   specificities:
   characteristics:

   *  it has an entry in the IRD, IRD;

   *  it defines the entities of D, D;

   *  it does not use another information resource that defines these
      entities,
      entities;

   *  it defines and exposes entity identifiers that are all persistent, persistent;
      and

   *  its media type is equal to the one that is specified for the
      defining information resource of an entity domain type.

   A fundamental characteristic of a defining information resource is
   its media type.  There is a unique association between an entity
   domain type and the media type of its defining information resource.
   When an entity domain type allows associations with defining
   information resources, the media type of the potential defining
   information resource MUST be specified:

   *  in the document that defines this entity domain type, and

   *  in the IANA ALTO "ALTO Entity Domain Type Registry Types" IANA registry and related
      information.

   When the Client wants to use a resource-specific entity domain, it
   needs to be cognizant of the media-type media type of its defining information
   resource.  If the Server exposes a resource-specific entity domain
   with a non-compliant noncompliant media type for the defining resource, the Client
   MUST ignore the entities from that entity domain to avoid errors.

4.6.2.  Examples of Defining Information Resources and Their Media Type Types

   Here are examples of defining information resource types and their
   media types associated to with different entity domain types:

   *  For entity domain type "pid": "pid", the media type of the specific
      resource is "application/alto-networkmap+json", "application/alto-networkmap+json" because PIDs are
      defined in network map resources.

   *  For entity domain types "ipv4" and "ipv6": "ipv6", the media type of the
      specific resource is "application/alto-networkmap+json", "application/alto-networkmap+json" because
      IPv4 and IPv6 addresses covered by the Server are defined in
      network map resources.

   *  For entities of domain type "ane": [I-D.ietf-alto-path-vector] "ane"; [PATH-VECTOR] defines entities
      named "ANE", where ANE stands for Abstracted Abstract Network Element, and
      the entity domain type "ane".  An ANE may have a persistent
      identifier, say, "entity-4", that is provided by the Server as a
      value of the "persistent-entity-id" property of this ANE.  Further
      properties may then be queried on an ANE by using its persistent
      entity ID.  These properties are available from a persistent
      property map, map that defines properties on for a specific "ane" domain.
      Together with the persistent identifier, the Server also provides
      the property map resource identifier where the "ane" domain
      containing "entity-4" is defined.  The definition of the "ane"
      entity domain containing "entity-4" is thus specific to the
      property map.  Therefore, for entities of domain type "ane" that
      have a persistent identifier, the media type of the defining
      information resource is "application/alto-
      propmap+json". "application/alto-propmap+json".

   *  Last, the entity domain types "asn" and "countrycode" defined in
      [I-D.ietf-alto-cdni-request-routing-alto]
      [RFC9241] do not have a defining information resource.  Indeed,
      the entity identifiers in these two entity domain types are
      already standardized in documents that the Client can use.

4.7.  Defining Information Resource Resources for Resource-Specific Property
      Values

   As explained in Section 4.3, a property type may take values that are
   resource-specific.  This is the case for property type "pid", whose
   values are by essence defined relative to a specific network map.
   That is, the PID value returned for an IPv4 address is specific to
   the network map defining this PID and may differ from one network map
   to another one.

   Another example is provided in
   [I-D.ietf-alto-cdni-request-routing-alto] that [RFC9241], which defines property type
   "cdni-capabilities".  The value of this property is specific to a
   CDNI advertisement
   Content Delivery Network Interconnection (CDNI) Advertisement
   resource, that which provides a list of CDNI capabilities.  The property
   is provided for entity domain types "ipv4", "ipv6", "asn" "asn", and
   "countrycode".  A  However, a CDNI Advertisement resource does however not
   define PID values for IPv4 addresses addresses, while a network map does not
   define CDNI capabilities for IPv4 addresses.

   Similar to resource-specific entity domains, the Client needs to be
   cognizant of appropriate associations of information resource and
   property types.  Therefore, when specifying and registering a
   property type whose values are resource-specific, the media type of
   its defining information resource needs to be specified.  For
   example:

   *  The media type of the defining information resource for property
      type "pid" is "application/alto-networkmap+json".

   *  The media type of the defining information resource for property
      type "cdni-capabilities" defined in
      [I-D.ietf-alto-cdni-request-routing-alto] [RFC9241] is "application/alto-
      cdni+json". "application/
      alto-cdni+json".

5.  Protocol Specification: Basic Data Types

5.1.  Entity Domain

5.1.1.  Entity Domain Type

   An entity domain has a type, which is uniquely identified by a string
   that MUST be no more than 64 characters, and MUST NOT contain
   characters other than US-ASCII alphanumeric characters
   (U+0030-U+0039, U+0041-U+005A, and U+0061-U+007A), the hyphen ('-',
   U+002D), the colon (':', U+003A), or the low line ('_', U+005F).

   The usage of colon (':', U+003A) MUST obey the rules below:

   *  The colon (':', U+003A) character MUST NOT appear more than once, once;

   *  The colon character MUST NOT be used unless within the string
      "priv:",
      "priv:";

   *  The string "priv:" MUST NOT be used unless it starts the string
      that identifies an entity domain type, type; and

   *  For an entity domain type identifier with the "priv:" prefix , prefix, an
      additional string (e.g., company identifier or random string) MUST
      follow "priv:", "priv:" to reduce potential collisions.

   For example, the strings "ipv4", "ipv6", "pid" "pid", and "priv:example-
   test-edt", are valid entity domain types. "ipv4.anycast", "pid.local"
   "pid.local", and "priv:" are invalid.

   Although "_", "-", "__--" are valid entity domain types, it is
   desirable to add characters characters, such as alphanumeric ones, for better
   intelligibility.

   The type EntityDomainType is used in this document to denote a JSON
   string meeting the preceding requirements.

   An entity domain type defines the semantics of a type of entity,
   independently of any specifying resource.  All entity domain types
   that are not prefixed with "priv:" MUST be registered with the IANA, IANA in
   the "ALTO Entity Domain Type Registry", Types" registry, defined in Section 12.3,
   following the procedure specified in Section 12.3.2 of this document.
   The format of the entity identifiers (see Section 5.1.3) in that
   entity domain type, as well as any hierarchical or inheritance rules
   (see Section 5.1.4) for those entities, MUST be specified in the IANA
   registration.

   Entity domain type identifiers prefixed with "priv:" are reserved for
   Private Use (see [RFC8126]) without a need to register with IANA.
   The definition of a private use private-use entity domain type MUST apply the
   same way in all property maps of an IRD where it is present.

5.1.2.  Entity Domain Name

   As discussed in Section 3.2, an entity domain is characterized by a
   type and identified by a name.

   This document distinguishes three categories of entity domains:
   resource-specific entity domains, resource-agnostic entity domains domains,
   and self-defined entity domains.  Their entity domain names are
   constructed as specified in the following sub-sections. subsections.

   Each entity domain is identified by a unique entity domain name.
   Borrowing the symbol "::=" from the Backus-Naur Form notation
   [RFC5511], the format of an entity domain name is defined as follows:

   EntityDomainName ::= [ [ ResourceID ] '.' ] EntityDomainType

   The presence and construction of the component

                   "[ [ ResourceID ] '.' ]"

   depends on the category of entity domain.

   Note that the '.' separator is not allowed in EntityDomainType EntityDomainType, and
   hence there is no ambiguity on whether an entity domain name refers
   to a resource-agnostic entity domain or a resource-specific entity
   domain.

   Note also that Section 10.1 of [RFC7285] specifies the format of the
   PID name name, which is the format of the resource ID including the
   following specification: "the

   |  The '.' separator is reserved for future use and MUST NOT be used
   |  unless specifically indicated in this document, or an extension document".
   |  document.

   The present extension keeps the format specification of [RFC7285],
   hence the '.' separator MUST NOT be used in an information resource
   ID.

5.1.2.1.  Resource-specific  Resource-Specific Entity Domain

   A resource-specific entity domain is identified by an entity domain
   name constructed as follows.  It MUST start with a resource ID using
   the ResourceID type defined in Section 10.2 of [RFC7285], followed by
   the '.' separator (U+002E), followed by a string of the type
   EntityDomainType specified in Section 5.1.1.

   For example, if an ALTO server provides two network maps "netmap-1"
   and "netmap-2", these network maps can define two resource-specific
   domains of type "pid", respectively identified by "netmap-1.pid" and
   "netmap-2.pid".

5.1.2.2.  Resource-agnostic  Resource-Agnostic Entity Domain

   A resource-agnostic entity domain contains entities that are
   identified independently of any information resource.  The identifier
   of a resource-agnostic entity domain is simply the identifier of its
   entity domain type.  For example, "ipv4" and "ipv6" identify the two
   resource-agnostic Internet address entity domains defined in
   Section 6.1.

5.1.2.3.  Self-defined  Self-Defined Entity Domain

   A property map can define properties on for entities that are specific
   to a unique information resource, which is the property map itself.
   This may be the case when an ALTO Server provides properties on for a
   set of entities that are defined only in this property map, are not
   relevant to another one one, and do not depend on another specific
   resource.

   For example: a specialised specialized property map may define a domain of type
   "ane", defined in [I-D.ietf-alto-path-vector], [PATH-VECTOR], that contains a set of ANEs
   representing data centers, centers that each have a persistent identifier and
   are relevant only to this property map.

   In this case, the entity domain is qualified as "self-defined".  The
   identifier of a self-defined entity domain can be of the format:

       EntityDomainName ::= '.' EntityDomainType

   where '.' indicates that the entity domain only exists within the
   property map resource using it.

   A self-defined entity domain can be viewed as a particular case of
   resource-specific entity domain, where the specific resource is the
   current resource that uses this entity domain.  In that case, for the
   sake of simplification, the component "ResourceID" MUST be omitted in
   its entity domain name.

5.1.3.  Entity Identifier

   Entities in an entity domain are identified by entity identifiers
   (EntityID) of the following format:

   EntityID ::= EntityDomainName ':' DomainTypeSpecificEntityID

   Examples from the Internet address entity domains include individual
   IP addresses such as "net1.ipv4:192.0.2.14" and
   "net1.ipv6:2001:db8::12", as well as address blocks such as
   "net1.ipv4:192.0.2.0/26" and "net1.ipv6:2001:db8::/48".

   The format of the second part of an entity identifier,
   DomainTypeSpecificEntityID, depends on the entity domain type, type and
   MUST be specified when defining a new entity domain type and
   registering it with the IANA.  Identifiers MAY be hierarchical, and
   properties MAY be inherited based on that hierarchy.  The rules
   defining any hierarchy or inheritance MUST be defined when the entity
   domain type is registered.

   The type EntityID is used in this document to denote a JSON string
   representing an entity identifier in this format.

   Note that two entity identifiers with different different, valid textual
   representations may refer to the same entity, for a given entity
   domain.  For example, the strings "net1.ipv6:2001:db8::1" and
   "net1.ipv6:2001:db8:0:0:0:0:0:1" refer to the same entity in the
   "ipv6" entity domain.  Such equivalences should be established by the
   object represented by DomainTypeSpecificEntityID, for DomainTypeSpecificEntityID.  For example,
   [RFC5952] establishes equivalence for IPv6 addresses, while [RFC4632]
   does so for IPv4 addresses.

5.1.4.  Hierarchy and Inheritance

   To simplify the representation, some types of entity domains allow
   the ALTO Client and Server to use a hierarchical entity identifier
   format to represent a block of individual entities.  For instance, in
   an IPv4 domain "net1.ipv4", a CIDR "net1.ipv4:192.0.2.0/26" covers 64
   individual IPv4 entities.  In this case, the corresponding property
   inheritance rule MUST be defined for the entity domain type.  The
   hierarchy and inheritance rule MUST have no ambiguity.

5.2.  Entity Property

   Each entity property has a type to indicate the encoding and the
   semantics of the value of this entity property, and has a name to
   identify it.

5.2.1.  Entity Property Type

   The type EntityPropertyType is used in this document to indicate a
   string denoting an entity property type.  The string MUST be no more
   than 32 characters, and it MUST NOT contain characters other than US-
   ASCII alphanumeric characters (U+0030-U+0039, U+0041-U+005A, and
   U+0061-U+007A), the hyphen ('-', U+002D), the colon (':', U+003A), or
   the low line ('_', U+005F).  Note that the '.' separator is not
   allowed because it is reserved to separate an entity property type
   and an information resource identifier when an entity property is
   resource-specific.

   While, in

   While Section 5.1.1, 5.1.1 allows the use of the character ":" is allowed with
   restrictions on entity domain identifiers, it can be used without
   restrictions on entity property type identifiers.  This relates to
   [RFC7285], where a Server can define properties on for endpoints "ipv4"
   and "ipv6".  In the present extension, there is a mapping of ALTO
   entity domain types "ipv4" and "ipv6", "ipv6" to ALTO address types "ipv4"
   and "ipv6".  Properties defined on for "ipv4" and "ipv6" endpoints
   should be re-usable reusable on "ipv4" and "ipv6" entities.  Forbidding the
   usage of ":" in a non-
   private non-private entity property type identifier would
   not allow to the use of properties previously defined on for "ipv4" and
   "ipv6" endpoints because their identifiers would be invalid.

   Although ":" or "_::-" are valid entity domain types, it is desirable
   to add characters characters, such as alphanumeric ones, for better
   intelligibility.

   Identifiers prefixed with "priv:" are reserved for Private Use
   [RFC8126] without a need to register with IANA.  All other
   identifiers for entity property types MUST be registered in the "ALTO
   Entity Property Type Registry", Types" registry, which is defined in Section 12.4.
   The intended semantics of the entity property type MUST be specified
   in the IANA registration.

   For an entity property identifier with the "priv:" prefix, an
   additional string (e.g., company identifier or random string) MUST
   follow the prefix to reduce potential collisions, that is, the string
   "priv:" alone is not a valid entity property identifier.  The
   definition of a private use private-use entity property type must apply the same
   way in all property maps of an IRD where it is present.

   To distinguish from the endpoint property type, the entity property
   type has the following characteristics:

   *  Some entity property types are applicable only to entities in
      particular entity domain types only. types.  For example, the property type
      "pid" is applicable to entities in the entity domain types "ipv4"
      or "ipv6" "ipv6", while it is not applicable to entities in an entity
      domain of type "pid".

   *  The intended semantics of the value of an entity property may also
      depend on the entity domain type.  For example, suppose that a
      property named "geo-location" is defined as the coordinates of a
      point,
      point and is encoded as: "latitude longitude [altitude]."  When
      applied to an entity that represents a specific host computer, computer and
      identified by an address in an entity domain of type "ipv4" or
      "ipv6", the "geo-location" property would define the host's
      location.  However, when applied to an entity in a "pid" domain
      type, the property would indicate a location representative of all
      hosts in this "pid" entity.

5.2.2.  Entity Property Name

   Each entity property is identified by an entity property name, which
   is a string of the following format:

   EntityPropertyName ::= [ [ ResourceID ] '.' ] EntityPropertyType

   Similar to the endpoint property type defined in Section 10.8 of
   [RFC7285], each entity property may be defined by either the property
   map itself (self-defined) or some other specific information resource
   (resource-specific).

   The entity property name of a resource-specific entity property
   starts with a string of the type ResourceID defined in [RFC7285],
   followed by the '.' separator (U+002E) and a an EntityDomainType typed
   string.  For example, the "pid" properties of an "ipv4" entity
   defined by two different maps "net-map-1" and "net-map-2" are
   identified by "net-map-1.pid" and "net-map-2.pid" respectively.

   The specific information resource of an entity property may be the
   current information resource itself, that is, the property map
   defining the property.  In that case, the ResourceID in the property
   name SHOULD be omitted.  For example, the property name ".asn"
   applied to an entity identified by its IPv4 address, address indicates the AS
   number of the AS that "owns" the entity, where the returned AS number
   is defined by the property map itself.

5.2.3.  Format for Entity Property Value

   Section 11.4.1.6 of [RFC7285] specifies that an implementation of the
   Endpoint Property Service specified in [RFC7285] SHOULD assume that
   the property value is a JSONString and fail to parse if it is not.
   This document extends the format of a property value by allowing it
   to be a JSONValue instead of just a JSONString.

6.  Entity Domain Types Defined in this This Document

   The definition of each entity domain type MUST include (1) the entity
   domain type name and (2) domain-specific entity identifiers, and MAY
   include (3) hierarchy and inheritance semantics optionally.  This
   document defines three initial entity domain types as follows.

6.1.  Internet Address Domain Types

   The document defines two entity domain types (IPv4 and IPv6) for
   Internet addresses.  Both types are resource-agnostic entity domain
   types and hence define corresponding resource-agnostic entity domains
   as well.  Since the two domains use the same hierarchy and
   inheritance semantics, we define the semantics together, instead of
   repeating for each.

6.1.1.  Entity Domain Type: IPv4

6.1.1.1.  Entity Domain Type Identifier

   The identifier for this Entity Domain Type is "ipv4".

6.1.1.2.  Domain-Specific Entity Identifiers

   Individual addresses are strings as specified by the IPv4address rule
   in Section 3.2.2 of [RFC3986]; Hierarchical hierarchical addresses are strings as
   specified by the prefix notation in Section 3.1 of [RFC4632].  To
   define properties, an individual Internet address and the
   corresponding full-length prefix are considered aliases for the same
   entity on which to define properties.  Thus, "ipv4:192.0.2.0" and
   "ipv4:192.0.2.0/32" are equivalent.

6.1.2.  Entity Domain Type: IPv6

6.1.2.1.  Entity Domain Type Identifier

   The identifier for this Entity Domain Type is "ipv6".

6.1.2.2.  Domain-Specific Entity Identifiers

   Individual addresses are strings as specified by Section 4 of
   [RFC5952]; Hierarchical hierarchical addresses are strings as specified by IPv6
   address prefixes notation in Section 2.3 of [RFC4291].  To define
   properties, an individual Internet address and the corresponding
   128-bit prefix are considered aliases for the same entity.  That is,
   "ipv6:2001:db8::1" and "ipv6:2001:db8::1/128" are equivalent, equivalent and have
   the same set of properties.

6.1.3.  Hierarchy and Inheritance of Internet Address Domains

   Both Internet address domains allow property values to be inherited.
   Specifically, if a property P is not defined for a specific Internet
   address I, but P is defined for a hierarchical Internet address C
   which
   that represents a set of addresses containing I, then the address I
   inherits the value of P defined for the hierarchical address C.  If
   more than one such hierarchical addresses define a value for P, I
   inherits the value of P in the hierarchical address with the longest
   prefix.  Note that this longest prefix rule ensures no multiple value
   inheritances, and hence no ambiguity.

   Hierarchical addresses can also inherit properties: if a property P
   is not defined for the hierarchical address C, but is defined for a
   set of hierarchical addresses, where each address C' in the set
   contains all IP addresses in C, and C' has a shorter prefix length
   than C, then C MUST inherit the property P from the C' having the
   longest prefix length.

   As an example, suppose that a server defines a property P for the
   following entities:

                             ipv4:192.0.2.0/26: P=v1
                             ipv4:192.0.2.0/28: P=v2
                             ipv4:192.0.2.0/30: P=v3
                             ipv4:192.0.2.0:    P=v4

                     Figure 1: Defined Property Values. Values

   Then the following entities have the indicated values:

                         ipv4:192.0.2.0:    P=v4
                         ipv4:192.0.2.1:    P=v3
                         ipv4:192.0.2.16:   P=v1
                         ipv4:192.0.2.32:   P=v1
                         ipv4:192.0.2.64:   (not defined)
                         ipv4:192.0.2.0/32: P=v4
                         ipv4:192.0.2.0/31: P=v3
                         ipv4:192.0.2.0/29: P=v2
                         ipv4:192.0.2.0/27: P=v1
                         ipv4:192.0.2.0/25: (not defined)

                    Figure 2: Inherited Property Values. Values

   An ALTO server MAY explicitly indicate a property as not having a
   value for a particular entity.  That is, a server MAY say that
   property P of entity X is "defined to have no value", value" instead of
   "undefined".  To indicate "no value", a server MAY perform different
   behaviors:

   *  If entity X would inherit a value for property P, and if the ALTO
      server decides to say that "X has no value for P", then the ALTO
      server MUST return a "null" value for that property on X.  In this
      case, the ALTO client MUST recognize the JSON "null" value as "no
      value" and interpret it as "do not apply the inheritance rules for
      this property on X".

   *  If the entity would not inherit a value, then the ALTO server MAY
      return "null" or just omit the property.  In this case, the ALTO
      client cannot infer the value for this property of this entity
      from the Inheritance rules.  So,  Thus, the client MUST interpret that
      this property has no value.

   If the ALTO server does not define any properties for an entity, then
   the server MAY omit that entity from the response.

6.1.4.  Defining Information Resource Media Type for domain types Domain Types IPv4
        and IPv6

   Entity domain types "ipv4" and "ipv6" both allow to define resource
   specific the definition of
   resource-specific entity domains.  When resource specific resource-specific domains are
   defined with entities of domain type "ipv4" or "ipv6", the defining
   information resource for an entity domain of type "ipv4" or "ipv6"
   MUST be a Network Map. The media type of a defining information
   resource is therefore:

   application/alto-networkmap+json

6.2.  Entity Domain Type: PID

   The PID entity domain associates property values with the PIDs in a
   network map.  Accordingly, this entity domain always depends on a
   network map.

6.2.1.  Entity Domain Type Identifier

   The identifier for this Entity Domain Type is "pid" "pid".

6.2.2.  Domain-Specific Entity Identifiers

   The entity identifiers are the PID names of the associated network
   map.

6.2.3.  Hierarchy and Inheritance

   There are is no hierarchy or inheritance for properties associated with
   PIDs.

6.2.4.  Defining Information Resource Media Type for Domain Type PID

   The entity domain type "pid" allows to define resource the definition of resource-
   specific entity domains.  When resource specific resource-specific domains are defined
   with entities of domain type "pid", the defining information resource
   for entity domain type "pid" MUST be a Network Map. The media type of
   a defining information resource is therefore:

   application/alto-networkmap+json

6.2.5.  Relationship To Internet Addresses Domains

   The PID domain and the Internet address domains are completely
   independent; the properties associated with a PID have no relation to
   the properties associated with the prefixes or endpoint addresses in
   that PID.  An ALTO server MAY choose to assign all the properties of
   a PID to the prefixes in that PID or only some of these properties.

   For example, suppose "PID1" consists of the prefix
   "ipv4:192.0.2.0/24",
   "ipv4:192.0.2.0/24" and has the property "P" P with value "v1". v1.  The
   Internet address entities "ipv4:192.0.2.0" and "ipv4:192.0.2.0/24" in
   the IPv4 domain MAY have a value for the property "P", P, and if they do,
   it is not necessarily "v1". v1.

6.3.  Internet Address Properties vs. PID Properties

   Because the Internet address and PID domains relate to completely
   distinct domain types, the question may arise as to which entity
   domain type is the best for a property.  In general, the Internet
   address domain types are RECOMMENDED for properties that are closely
   related to the Internet address, address or are associated with, and inherited
   through, hierarchical addresses.

   The PID domain type is RECOMMENDED for properties that arise from the
   definition of the PID, rather than from the Internet address prefixes
   in that PID.

   For example, because Internet addresses are allocated to service
   providers by blocks of prefixes, an "ISP" property would be best
   associated with Internet address domain types.  On the other hand, a
   property that explains why a PID was formed, or how it relates to a
   provider's network, would best be associated with the PID domain
   type.

7.  Property Map

   A property map returns the properties defined for all entities in one
   or more domains, e.g., the "location" property of entities in "pid"
   domain, and the "ASN" property of entities in "ipv4" and "ipv6"
   domains.  Section 10.4 gives an example of a property map request and
   its response.

   Downloading the whole property map is a way for the Client to obtain
   the Entity IDs that can be used as input for a Filtered Property Map
   request.  However, a whole property map may be too voluminous for a
   Client that only wants the list of applicable Entity IDs.  How to
   obtain the list of entities of a filtered property map in a
   simplified response is specified in Section 8.

7.1.  Media Type

   The media type of a property map is "application/alto-propmap+json".

7.2.  HTTP Method

   The property map is requested using the HTTP GET method.

7.3.  Accept Input Parameters

   A Property Map has no Accept Input parameters.

7.4.  Capabilities

   The capabilities are defined by an object of type
   PropertyMapCapabilities:

       object {
         EntityPropertyMapping mappings;
       } PropertyMapCapabilities;

       object-map {
         EntityDomainName -> EntityPropertyName<1..*>;
       } EntityPropertyMapping

   with fields:

   mappings:  A JSON object whose keys are names of entity domains and
      values are the supported entity properties of the corresponding
      entity domains.

7.5.  Uses

   The "uses" field of a property map resource in an IRD entry specifies
   the resources in this same IRD on which this property map directly
   depends.  It is an array of resource ID(s).  This array identifies
   the defining information resources associated with the resource-
   specific entity domains and properties that are indicated in this
   resource.

7.6.  Response

   If the entity domains in this property map depend on other resources,
   the "dependent-vtags" field in the "meta" field of the response MUST
   be an array that includes the version tags of those resources, and
   the order MUST be consistent with the "uses" field of this property
   map resource.  The data component of a property map response is named
   "property-map", which is a JSON object of type PropertyMapData,
   where:

       object {
         PropertyMapData property-map;
       } InfoResourceProperties : ResponseEntityBase;

       object-map {
         EntityID -> EntityProps;
       } PropertyMapData;

       object {
         EntityPropertyName -> JSONValue;
       } EntityProps;

   The ResponseEntityBase type is defined in Section 8.4 of [RFC7285].

   Specifically, a PropertyMapData object has one member for each entity
   in the property map.  The entity's properties are encoded in the
   corresponding EntityProps object.  EntityProps encodes one name/value
   pair for each property, where the property names are encoded as
   strings of type PropertyName.  A protocol implementation SHOULD
   assume that the property value is either a JSONString or a JSON
   "null" value, and fail to parse if it is not, unless the
   implementation is using an extension to this document that indicates
   when and how property values of other data types are signaled.

   For each entity in the property map:

   *  If the entity is in a resource-specific entity domain, the ALTO
      server MUST only return self-defined properties and resource-
      specific properties which that depend on the same resource as the entity
      does.  The ALTO client MUST ignore any resource-specific property
      for this entity if the mapping between this resource-
      specific resource-specific
      property and this entity is not indicated, in the IRD, in the
      "mappings" capability of the property map resource.

   *  If the entity identifier is resource-agnostic, the ALTO server
      SHOULD return the self-defined properties and all the resource-
      specific properties that are defined in the property defining
      information resources indicated, in the IRD, in the "mappings"
      capability of the property map resource, unless property values
      can be omitted upon some inheritance rules.

   The ALTO server MAY omit property values that are inherited rather
   than explicitly defined, defined in order to achieve more compact encoding.
   As a consequence, the ALTO Client MUST NOT assume inherited property
   values will all be present.  If the Client needs inherited values, it
   MUST use the entity domain's inheritance rules to deduce those
   values.

8.  Filtered Property Map

   A filtered property map returns the values of a set of properties for
   a set of entities selected by the client.

   Section

   Sections 10.5, Section 10.6, Section 10.7 10.7, and Section 10.8 give examples of filtered
   property map requests and responses.

   While the IRD lists all the names of the supported properties, it
   only lists the names of the supported entity domains and not the
   entity IDs.  A client, sometimes,  Sometimes a client may only want to know what entity IDs
   it can provide as input to a filtered property map request but wants
   to avoid the burden of downloading the full property map.  Or it may
   want to check whether some given entity IDs are eligible for a query.
   To support such a case, the filtered property map supports a
   light weight response,
   lightweight response with empty property values.

8.1.  Media Type

   The media type of a property map resource is "application/alto-
   propmap+json".

8.2.  HTTP Method

   The filtered property map is requested using the HTTP POST method.

8.3.  Accept Input Parameters

   The input parameters for a filtered property map request are supplied
   in the entity body of the POST request.  This document specifies the
   input parameters with a data format indicated by the media type
   "application/alto-propmapparams+json", which is a JSON object of type
   ReqFilteredPropertyMap.  ReqFilteredPropertyMap is designed to
   support the following cases of client requests:

   *  The client wants the value of a selected set of properties on for a
      selected set of entities, entities;

   *  The client wants all properties property values on all the entities, entities;

   *  The client wants all entities on for which a property is defined but
      is not interested in their property values, values; or

   *  The Client client wants to cross-check whether some entity IDs are
      present in the Filtered Property Map but is not interested in
      their property values.

   The third case is equivalent to querying the whole unfiltered
   property map, which can also be achieved with a GET request.  Some
   Clients
   Clients, however, may prefer to systematically make filtered property
   map queries, where filtering parameters may sometimes be empty.

   The JSON object ReqFilteredPropertyMap is specified as follows:

                     object {
                       EntityID             entities<0..*>;
                       [EntityPropertyName   properties<0..*>;]
                     } ReqFilteredPropertyMap;

   with fields:

   entities:  List  A list of entity identifiers for which the specified
      properties are to be returned.  If the list is empty, the ALTO
      Server MUST interpret the list as if it contained a list of all
      entities currently defined in the filtered property map.  The
      domain of each entity MUST be included in the list of entity
      domains in this resource's "capabilities" field (see Section 8.4).
      The ALTO server MUST interpret entries appearing multiple times as
      if they appeared only once.

   properties:  List  A list of properties to be returned for each entity.  If
      the list is empty, the ALTO Sever MUST interpret the list as if it
      contained a list of all properties currently defined in the
      filtered property map.  Each specified property MUST be included
      in the list of properties in this resource's "capabilities" field
      (see Section 8.4).  The ALTO server MUST interpret entries
      appearing multiple times as if they appeared only once.  This
      field is optional.  If it is absent, the Server returns a property
      value equal to the literal string "{}" for all the entity IDs of
      the "entities" field on for which at least one property is defined.

   Note that the field "properties" is optional.  When in  In addition, when the
   "entities" field is an empty list, it corresponds to a query for all
   applicable entity IDs of the filtered property map, with no current
   interest on any particular property.  When the "entities" field is
   not empty, it allows the Client to check whether the listed entity
   IDs can be used as input to a filtered property map query.

8.4.  Capabilities

   The capabilities are defined by an object of type
   PropertyMapCapabilities, as defined in Section 7.4.

8.5.  Uses

   Same to

   This is the same as the "uses" field of the Property Map resource
   (see Section 7.5).

8.6.  Filtered Property Map Response

   The response MUST indicate an error, using ALTO protocol Protocol error
   handling, as defined in Section 8.5 of [RFC7285], if the request is
   invalid.

   Specifically, a filtered property map request can be invalid in the
   following cases:

   *  The input field "entities" is absent from the Client request.  In
      this case, the Server MUST return an "E_MISSING_FIELD" error as
      defined in Section 8.5.2 of [RFC7285].

   *  An entity identifier in the "entities" field of the request is
      invalid.  This occurs when:

      -  The domain of this entity is not defined in the "entity-
         domains" capability of this resource in the IRD, or

      -  The entity identifier is not valid for the entity domain.

      A valid entity identifier does never generate generates an error, even if the
      filtered property map resource does not define any properties for
      it.

      If an entity identifier in the "entities" field of the request is
      invalid, the ALTO server MUST return an "E_INVALID_FIELD_VALUE"
      error defined in Section 8.5.2 of [RFC7285], and the "value" field
      of the error message SHOULD indicate the provided invalid entity
      identifier.

   *  A property name in the "properties" field of the request is
      invalid.  This occurs when this property name is not defined in
      the "properties" capability of this resource in the IRD.

      When a filtered property map resource does not define a value for
      a property requested on for a particular entity, it is not an error.
      In this case, the ALTO server MUST omit that property from the
      response for that endpoint.

      If a property name in the "properties" field in the request is
      invalid, the ALTO server MUST return an "E_INVALID_FIELD_VALUE"
      error defined in Section 8.5.2 of [RFC7285].  The "value" field of
      the error message SHOULD indicate the property name.

   Some identifiers can be interpreted as both an entity name and a
   property name, as it is the case for "pid" if it would be were erroneously used
   alone.  In such a case, the Server SHOULD follow Section 8.5.2 of
   [RFC7285], that which says: "For

   |  For an E_INVALID_FIELD_VALUE error, the server may include an
   |  optional field named "field" in the "meta" field of the response,
   |  to indicate the field that contains the wrong
   value." value.

   The response to a valid request is the same as for the Property Map
   (see Section 7.6), 7.6) except that:

   *  If the requested entities include entities with a resource-
      agnostic identifier, the "dependent-vtags" field in its "meta"
      field MUST include version tags of all dependent resources
      appearing in the "uses" field.

   *  If the requested entities only include entities in resource-
      specific entity domains, the "dependent-vtags" field in its "meta"
      field MUST include the version tags of the resources on which the
      requested resource-specific entity domains and the requested
      resource-specific properties are dependent on. dependent.

   *  The response only includes the entities and properties requested
      by the client.  If an entity in the request is identified by a
      hierarchical identifier (e.g., a "ipv4" or "ipv6" prefix), the
      response MUST return all properties that are present on for any
      address covered by the prefix, even though some of those
      properties may not be present on for all addresses covered by the
      prefix.

   *  When the input member "properties" is absent from the client
      request, the Server returns a property map containing all the
      requested entity identifiers on for which one or more properties are
      defined.  For all the entities of the returned map, the returned
      property value is equal to '{}'. "{}".

   The filtered property map response MUST include all the inherited
   property values for the requested entities and all the entities which that
   are able to inherit property values from the requested entities.  To
   achieve this goal, the ALTO server MAY follow two rules:

   *  If a property for a requested entity is inherited from another
      entity not included in the request, the response MUST include this
      property for the requested entity.  For example, A a full property
      map may skip a property P for an entity A (e.g.,
      ipv4:192.0.2.0/31)
      "ipv4:192.0.2.0/31") if P can be derived using inheritance from
      another entity B (e.g., ipv4:192.0.2.0/30). "ipv4:192.0.2.0/30").  A filtered property
      map request may include only A but not B.  In such a case, the
      property P MUST be included in the response for A.

   *  If there are entities covered by a requested entity but having they have
      different values for the requested properties, the response MUST
      include all those entities and the different property values for
      them.  For example, considering consider a request for property P of entity A
      (e.g., ipv4:192.0.2.0/31), "ipv4:192.0.2.0/31"): if P has value v1 for
      A1=ipv4:192.0.2.0/32
      "A1=ipv4:192.0.2.0/32" and v2 for A2=ipv4:192.0.2.1/32, then, "A2=ipv4:192.0.2.1/32", then the
      response SHOULD include A1 and A2.

   For the sake of response compactness, the ALTO server SHOULD obey the
   following rule:

   *  If an entity identifier in the response is already covered by
      other entities identifiers in the same response, it SHOULD be
      removed from the response.  In the previous example, the entity A
      = ipv4:192.0.2.0/31
      "A=ipv4:192.0.2.0/31" SHOULD be removed because A1 and A2 cover
      all the addresses in A.

   An ALTO client should be aware that the entities in the response may
   be different from the entities in its request.

8.7.  Entity Property Type Defined in This Document

   This document defines the entity property type "pid".  This property
   type extends the ALTO Endpoint Property Type endpoint property type "pid" defined in section
   Section 7.1.1 of [RFC7285] as follows: the property has the same
   semantics and applies to IPv4 and IPv6 addresses; the difference is
   that the IPv4 and IPv6 addresses have evolved from the status of
   endpoints to the status of entities.

   The defining information resource for property type MUST be a network
   map.  This document requests a an IANA registration for this property property.

8.7.1.  Entity Property Type: pid
   1.

   Identifier:  pid

   2.

   Semantics:  the intended semantics are the same as in [RFC7285] for
      the ALTO Endpoint Property Type "pid"

   3. endpoint property type "pid".

   Media type of defining information resource:  application/alto-
      networkmap+json

   4.

   Security considerations:  for entity property type "pid" are the same
      as documented in [RFC7285] for the ALTO Endpoint Property
       Type endpoint property type
      "pid".

9.  Impact on Legacy ALTO Servers and ALTO Clients

9.1.  Impact on Endpoint Property Service

   Since the Property Map and the Filtered Property Map defined in this
   document provide a functionality that covers the EPS defined in
   Section 11.4 of [RFC7285], ALTO servers may prefer to provide
   Property Map and Filtered Property Map in place of EPS.  However, for
   the legacy endpoint properties, it is recommended that ALTO servers
   also provide EPS so that legacy clients can still be supported.

9.2.  Impact on Resource-Specific Properties

   Section 10.8 of [RFC7285] defines two categories of endpoint
   properties: "resource-specific" and "global".  Resource-specific
   property names are prefixed with the ID of the resource they depend
   on, while global property names have no such prefix.  The property
   map and the filtered property map defined specified in this document define
   similar categories of entity properties.  The difference is that
   entity property maps do not define "global" entity properties.
   Instead, they define "self-defined" entity properties as a special
   case of "resource-specific" entity properties, where the specific
   resource is the property map itself.  This means that "self-defined"
   properties are defined within the scope of the property map.

9.3.  Impact on Other Properties

   In the present extension, properties can be defined on for sets of
   entity addresses, rather than just individual endpoint addresses as
   initially defined in [RFC7285].  This might change the semantics of a
   property.  These sets can be be, for example example, hierarchical IP address
   blocks.  For instance, a property such as the fictitious "geo-location", "geo-
   location" defined on for a set of IP addresses would have a value
   corresponding to a location representative of all the addresses in
   this set.

10.  Examples

   In this document, the HTTP message bodies of all the examples use
   Unix-style line-ending character (%x0A) as the line separator.

10.1.  Network Map

   The examples in this section use a very simple default network map:

                  defaultpid:  ipv4:0.0.0.0/0  ipv6:::/0
                  pid1:        ipv4:192.0.2.0/25
                  pid2:        ipv4:192.0.2.0/27
                  pid3:        ipv4:192.0.3.0/28
                  pid4:        ipv4:192.0.3.16/28

                   Figure 3: Example Default Network Map

   And another simple alternative network map:

                  defaultpid:  ipv4:0.0.0.0/0  ipv6:::/0
                  pid1:        ipv4:192.0.2.0/27
                  pid2:        ipv4:192.0.3.0/27

                 Figure 4: Example Alternative Network Map

10.2.  Property Definitions

   Beyond "pid", the examples in this section use four additional additional,
   fictitious property types for entities of domain type "ipv4":
   "countrycode", "ASN", "ISP", and "state".  These properties are
   assumed to be resource-agnostic so their name is identical to their
   type.  The entities have the following values:

                                   ISP    ASN   countrycode   state
           ipv4:192.0.2.0/23:    BitsRus   -       us          -
           ipv4:192.0.2.0/28:       -    65543     -           NJ
           ipv4:192.0.2.16/28:      -    65543     -           CT
           ipv4:192.0.2.1:          -      -       -           PA
           ipv4:192.0.3.0/28:       -    65544     -           TX
           ipv4:192.0.3.16/28:      -    65544     -           MN

       Figure 5: Example Property Values for Internet Address Domains

   And the

   The examples in this section use the property "region" for the PID
   domain of the default network map with the following values:

                                         region
                      pid:defaultpid:     -
                      pid:pid1:           us-west
                      pid:pid2:           us-east
                      pid:pid3:           us-south
                      pid:pid4:           us-north

      Figure 6: Example Property Values for Default Network Map's PID
                                   Domain

   Note that "-" means the value of the property for the entity is
   "undefined".  So the entity would inherit a value for this property
   by the inheritance rule if possible.  For example, the value of the
   "ISP" property for "ipv4:192.0.2.1" is "BitsRus" because of
   "ipv4:192.0.2.0/24".  But the "region" property for "pid:defaultpid"
   has no value because there is no entity from which it can inherit.

   Similar to the PID domain of the default network map, the examples in
   this section use the property "ASN" for the PID domain of the
   alternative network map with the following values:

                                             ASN
                          pid:defaultpid:     -
                          pid:pid1:         65543
                          pid:pid2:         65544

      Figure 7: Example Property Values for Alternative Network Map's
                                 PID Domain

10.3.  Information Resource Directory (IRD)

   The following IRD defines ALTO Server information resources that are
   relevant to the Entity Property Service.  It provides a property map
   for the "ISP" and "ASN" properties.  The server could have provided a
   single property map for all four properties, but it does not,
   presumably because the organization that runs the ALTO server
   believes that a client is not necessarily interested in getting all
   four properties.

   The server provides several filtered property maps.  The first
   returns all four properties, and the second returns only the "pid"
   property for the default network map and the "alt-network-map".

   The filtered property maps for the "ISP", "ASN", "countrycode" "countrycode", and
   "state" properties do not depend on the default network map (it does
   not have a "uses" capability), capability) because the definitions of those
   properties do not depend on the default network map.  The Filtered
   Property Map providing the "pid" property does have a "uses"
   capability for the default network map because the default network
   map defines the values of the "pid" property.

   Note that for legacy clients, the ALTO server provides an Endpoint
   Property Service for the "pid" property defined on for the endpoints of
   the default network map and the "alt-network-map".

   The server provides another filtered Property map resource, named
   "ane-dc-property-map", that returns fictitious properties named
   "storage-capacity", "ram" "ram", and "cpu" for ANEs that have a persistent
   identifier.  The entity domain to which the ANEs belong is "self-
   defined" and valid only within the property map.

   The other property maps in the returned IRD are shown here for
   purposes of illustration.

    GET /directory HTTP/1.1
    Host: alto.example.com
    Accept: application/alto-directory+json,application/alto-error+json

    HTTP/1.1 200 OK
    Content-Length: 2713
    Content-Type: application/alto-directory+json

    {
      "meta" : {
        "default-alto-network-map" : "default-network-map"
      },
      "resources" : {
        "default-network-map" : {
          "uri" : "http://alto.example.com/networkmap/default",
          "media-type" : "application/alto-networkmap+json"
        },
        "alt-network-map" : {
          "uri" : "http://alto.example.com/networkmap/alt",
          "media-type" : "application/alto-networkmap+json"
        },
        "ia-property-map" : {
          "uri" : "http://alto.example.com/propmap/full/inet-ia",
          "media-type" : "application/alto-propmap+json",
          "capabilities" : {
            "mappings": {
              "ipv4": [ ".ISP", ".ASN" ],
              "ipv6": [ ".ISP", ".ASN" ]
            }
          }
        },
        "iacs-property-map" : {
          "uri" : "http://alto.example.com/propmap/lookup/inet-iacs",
          "media-type" : "application/alto-propmap+json",
          "accepts": "application/alto-propmapparams+json",
          "capabilities" : {
            "mappings": {
              "ipv4": [ ".ISP", ".ASN", ".countrycode", ".state" ],
              "ipv6": [ ".ISP", ".ASN", ".countrycode", ".state" ]
            }
          }
        },
        "region-property-map": {
          "uri": "http://alto.example.com/propmap/lookup/region",
          "media-type": "application/alto-propmap+json",
          "accepts": "application/alto-propmapparams+json",
          "uses" : [ "default-network-map", "alt-network-map" ],
          "capabilities": {
            "mappings": {
              "default-network-map.pid": [ ".region" ],
              "alt-network-map.pid": [ ".ASN" ]
            }
          }
        },
        "ip-pid-property-map" : {
          "uri" : "http://alto.example.com/propmap/lookup/pid",
          "media-type" : "application/alto-propmap+json",
          "accepts" : "application/alto-propmapparams+json",
          "uses" : [ "default-network-map", "alt-network-map" ],
          "capabilities" : {
            "mappings": {
              "ipv4": [ "default-network-map.pid",
                        "alt-network-map.pid" ],
              "ipv6": [ "default-network-map.pid",
                        "alt-network-map.pid" ]
            }
          }
        },
        "legacy-endpoint-property" : {
          "uri" : "http://alto.example.com/legacy/eps-pid",
          "media-type" : "application/alto-endpointprop+json",
          "accepts" : "application/alto-endpointpropparams+json",
          "capabilities" : {
            "properties" : [ "default-network-map.pid",
                             "alt-network-map.pid" ]
          }
        },
        "ane-dc-property-map": {
          "uri" : "http://alto.example.com/propmap/lookup/ane-dc",
          "media-type" : "application/alto-propmap+json",
          "accepts": "application/alto-propmapparams+json",
          "capabilities": {
            "mappings": {
              ".ane" : [ "storage-capacity", "ram", "cpu" ]
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }

                           Figure 8: Example IRD

10.4.  Full Property Map Example

   The following example uses the properties and IRD defined in
   Section 10.3 to retrieve a Property Map for entities with the "ISP"
   and "ASN" properties.

   Note that, to be compact, the response does not include the entity
   "ipv4:192.0.2.1" because values of all those properties for this
   entity are inherited from other entities.

   Also note that the entities "ipv4:192.0.2.0/28" and
   "ipv4:192.0.2.16/28" are merged into "ipv4:192.0.2.0/27", "ipv4:192.0.2.0/27" because they
   have the same value of the "ASN" property.  The same rule applies to
   the entities "ipv4:192.0.3.0/28" and "ipv4:192.0.3.16/28".  Both of
   "ipv4:192.0.2.0/27" and "ipv4:192.0.3.0/27" omit the value for the
   "ISP" property, property because it is inherited from "ipv4:192.0.2.0/23".

   GET /propmap/full/inet-ia HTTP/1.1
   Host: alto.example.com
   Accept: application/alto-propmap+json,application/alto-error+json

   HTTP/1.1 200 OK
   Content-Length: 418
   Content-Type: application/alto-propmap+json

   {
     "meta": {
       "dependent-vtags": [
         {"resource-id": "default-network-map",
          "tag": "3ee2cb7e8d63d9fab71b9b34cbf764436315542e"},
         {"resource-id": "alt-network-map",
          "tag": "c0ce023b8678a7b9ec00324673b98e54656d1f6d"}
       ]
     },
     "property-map": {
       "ipv4:192.0.2.0/23":   {".ISP": "BitsRus"},
       "ipv4:192.0.2.0/27":   {".ASN": "65543"},
       "ipv4:192.0.3.0/27":   {".ASN": "65544"}
     }
   }

10.5.  Filtered Property Map Example #1

   The following example uses the filtered property map resource to
   request the "ISP", "ASN" "ASN", and "state" properties for several IPv4
   addresses.

   Note that the value of "state" for "ipv4:192.0.2.1" is the only
   explicitly defined property; the other values are all derived by from
   the inheritance rules for Internet address entities.

   POST /propmap/lookup/inet-iacs HTTP/1.1
   Host: alto.example.com
   Accept: application/alto-propmap+json,application/alto-error+json
   Content-Length: 158
   Content-Type: application/alto-propmapparams+json

   {
     "entities" : [ "ipv4:192.0.2.0",
                    "ipv4:192.0.2.1",
                    "ipv4:192.0.2.17" ],
     "properties" : [ ".ISP", ".ASN", ".state" ]
   }

   HTTP/1.1 200 OK
   Content-Length: 540
   Content-Type: application/alto-propmap+json

   {
     "meta": {
       "dependent-vtags": [
         {"resource-id": "default-network-map",
          "tag": "3ee2cb7e8d63d9fab71b9b34cbf764436315542e"},
         {"resource-id": "alt-network-map",
          "tag": "c0ce023b8678a7b9ec00324673b98e54656d1f6d"}
       ]
     },
     "property-map": {
       "ipv4:192.0.2.0":
              {".ISP": "BitsRus", ".ASN": "65543", ".state": "NJ"},
       "ipv4:192.0.2.1":
              {".ISP": "BitsRus", ".ASN": "65543", ".state": "PA"},
       "ipv4:192.0.2.17":
              {".ISP": "BitsRus", ".ASN": "65543", ".state": "CT"}
     }
   }

10.6.  Filtered Property Map Example #2

   The following example uses the filtered property map resource to
   request the "ASN", "countrycode" "countrycode", and "state" properties for several
   IPv4 prefixes.

   Note that the property values for both entities "ipv4:192.0.2.0/26"
   and "ipv4:192.0.3.0/26" are not explicitly defined.  They are
   inherited from the entity "ipv4:192.0.2.0/23".

   Also note that some entities like "ipv4:192.0.2.0/28" and
   "ipv4:192.0.2.16/28" in the response are not explicitly listed in the
   request.  The response includes them because they are refinements of
   the requested entities and have different values for the requested
   properties.

   The entity "ipv4:192.0.4.0/26" is not included in the response, response
   because there are neither entities from which it is inherited from, inherited, nor
   entities inherited from it.

   POST /propmap/lookup/inet-iacs HTTP/1.1
   Host: alto.example.com
   Accept: application/alto-propmap+json,application/alto-error+json
   Content-Length: 174
   Content-Type: application/alto-propmapparams+json

   {
     "entities" : [ "ipv4:192.0.2.0/26",
                    "ipv4:192.0.3.0/26",
                    "ipv4:192.0.4.0/26" ],
     "properties" : [ ".ASN", ".countrycode", ".state" ]
   }

   HTTP/1.1 200 OK
   Content-Length: 774
   Content-Type: application/alto-propmap+json

   {
     "meta": {
       "dependent-vtags": [
         {"resource-id": "default-network-map",
          "tag": "3ee2cb7e8d63d9fab71b9b34cbf764436315542e"},
         {"resource-id": "alt-network-map",
          "tag": "c0ce023b8678a7b9ec00324673b98e54656d1f6d"}
       ]
     },
     "property-map": {
       "ipv4:192.0.2.0/26":  {".countrycode": "us"},
       "ipv4:192.0.2.0/28":  {".ASN": "65543",
                              ".state": "NJ"},
       "ipv4:192.0.2.16/28": {".ASN": "65543",
                              ".state": "CT"},
       "ipv4:192.0.2.1":     {".state": "PA"},
       "ipv4:192.0.3.0/26":  {".countrycode": "us"},
       "ipv4:192.0.3.0/28":  {".ASN": "65544",
                              ".state": "TX"},
       "ipv4:192.0.3.16/28": {".ASN": "65544",
                              ".state": "MN"}
     }
   }

10.7.  Filtered Property Map Example #3

   The following example uses the filtered property map resource to
   request the "default-network-map.pid" property and the "alt-network-
   map.pid" property for a set of IPv4 addresses and prefixes.

   Note that the entity "ipv4:192.0.3.0/27" is decomposed into two
   entities
   entities: "ipv4:192.0.3.0/28" and "ipv4:192.0.3.16/28", as they have
   different "default-network-map.pid" property values.

   POST /propmap/lookup/pid HTTP/1.1
   Host: alto.example.com
   Accept: application/alto-propmap+json,application/alto-error+json
   Content-Length: 222
   Content-Type: application/alto-propmapparams+json

   {
     "entities" : [
                   "ipv4:192.0.2.128",
                   "ipv4:192.0.2.0/27",
                   "ipv4:192.0.3.0/27" ],
     "properties" : [ "default-network-map.pid",
                      "alt-network-map.pid" ]
   }

   HTTP/1.1 200 OK
   Content-Length: 774
   Content-Type: application/alto-propmap+json

   {
     "meta": {
       "dependent-vtags": [
         {"resource-id": "default-network-map",
          "tag": "3ee2cb7e8d63d9fab71b9b34cbf764436315542e"},
         {"resource-id": "alt-network-map",
          "tag": "c0ce023b8678a7b9ec00324673b98e54656d1f6d"}
       ]
     },
     "property-map": {
       "ipv4:192.0.2.128":   {"default-network-map.pid": "defaultpid",
                              "alt-network-map.pid": "defaultpid"},
       "ipv4:192.0.2.0/27":  {"default-network-map.pid": "pid2",
                              "alt-network-map.pid": "pid1"},
       "ipv4:192.0.3.0/28":  {"default-network-map.pid": "pid3",
                              "alt-network-map.pid": "pid2"},
       "ipv4:192.0.3.16/28": {"default-network-map.pid": "pid4",
                              "alt-network-map.pid": "pid2"}
     }
   }

10.8.  Filtered Property Map Example #4

   Here is an example of using the filtered property map to query the
   regions for several PIDs in "default-network-map".  The "region"
   property is specified as a "self-defined" property, i.e., the values
   of this property are defined by this property map resource.

   POST /propmap/lookup/region HTTP/1.1
   Host: alto.example.com
   Accept: application/alto-propmap+json,application/alto-error+json
   Content-Length: 132
   Content-Type: application/alto-propmapparams+json

   {
     "entities" : ["default-network-map.pid:pid1",
                   "default-network-map.pid:pid2"],
     "properties" : [ ".region" ]
   }

   HTTP/1.1 200 OK
   Content-Length: 326
   Content-Type: application/alto-propmap+json

   {
     "meta" : {
       "dependent-vtags" : [
          {"resource-id": "default-network-map",
           "tag": "7915dc0290c2705481c491a2b4ffbec482b3cf62"}
       ]
     },
     "property-map": {
       "default-network-map.pid:pid1": {
         ".region": "us-west"
       },
       "default-network-map.pid:pid2": {
         ".region": "us-east"
       }
     }
   }

10.9.  Filtered Property Map for ANEs Example #5

   The following example uses the filtered property map resource "ane-
   dc-property-map" to request properties "storage-capacity" and "cpu"
   on several ANEs defined in this property map.

   POST /propmap/lookup/ane-dc HTTP/1.1
   Host: alto.example.com
   Accept: application/alto-propmap+json,application/alto-error+json
   Content-Length: 155
   Content-Type: application/alto-propmapparams+json

   {
     "entities" : [".ane:dc21",
                   ".ane:dc45.srv9",
                   ".ane:dc6.srv-cluster8"],
     "properties" : [ "storage-capacity", "cpu"]
   }

   HTTP/1.1 200 OK
   Content-Length: 295
   Content-Type: application/alto-propmap+json

   {
     "meta" : {
     },
     "property-map": {
       ".ane:dc21":
         {"storage-capacity" : 40000, "cpu" : 500},
       ".ane:dc45.srv9":
         {"storage-capacity" : 100, "cpu" : 20},
       ".ane:dc6.srv-cluster8":
         {"storage-capacity" : 6000, "cpu" : 100}
     }
   }

11.  Security Considerations

   Both Property Map and Filtered Property Map defined in this document
   fit into the architecture of the ALTO base protocol, and hence the
   Security Considerations (Section 15 of [RFC7285]) of the base
   protocol fully apply: authenticity and integrity of ALTO information
   (i.e., authenticity and integrity of Property Maps), potential
   undesirable guidance from authenticated ALTO information (e.g.,
   potentially imprecise or even wrong value of a property such as geo-
   location), confidentiality of ALTO information (e.g., exposure of a
   potentially sensitive entity property such as geo-location), privacy
   for ALTO users, and availability of ALTO services should all be
   considered.

   ALTO clients using this extension should in addition be aware that
   the entity properties they require may convey more details than the
   endpoint properties conveyed by using [RFC7285].  Client requests may
   reveal details on of their activity or plans thereof, thereof such that a
   malicious Server, that which is in a position to do so, may monetize or
   use for attacks or undesired surveillance.  Likewise, ALTO Servers
   expose entities and properties related to specific parts of the
   infrastructure that reveal details on of capabilities, locations, or
   resource availability.  These details may be maliciously used for
   competition purposes, or to cause resource shortage or undesired
   publication.

   To address these concerns, the Property Maps provided by this
   extension require additional attention on to two security considerations
   discussed in [RFC7285]: "potential undesirable guidance in: Section 15.2 ("Potential Undesirable Guidance from
   authenticated
   Authenticated ALTO information" (Section 15.2 Information") of [RFC7285]) [RFC7285] and
   "confidentiality Section 15.3
   ("Confidentiality of ALTO information" (Section 15.3 Information") of [RFC7285]). [RFC7285].  Threats to the
   availability of the ALTO Service service caused by highly demanding queries
   should be addressed as specified in Section 15.5 of [RFC7285].

   *  Potential undesirable guidance from authenticated ALTO
      information: it this can be caused by Property values that change
      over time and thus lead to performance degradation or system
      rejection of application requests.

      To avoid these consequences, a more robust ALTO client should
      adopt and extend protection strategies specified in Section 15.2
      of [RFC7285].  For example, to be notified immediately when a
      particular ALTO value that the Client depends on changes, it is
      RECOMMENDED that both the ALTO Client and ALTO Server using this
      extension implement "Application-Layer Traffic Optimization (ALTO)
      Incremental Updates Using Server-Sent Events (SSE)" [RFC8895].

   *  Confidentiality of ALTO information: as discussed in Section 15 of
      [RFC7285], properties may have sensitive customer-specific
      information.  If this is the case, an ALTO Server may limit access
      to those properties by providing several different property maps.
      For non-sensitive a nonsensitive properties, the ALTO Server would provide a URI
      which
      that accepts requests from any client.  Sensitive properties, on
      the other hand, would only be available via a secure URI which that
      would require client authentication.  Another way is to expose
      highly abstracted abstracted, coarse-grained property values to all Clients
      while restricting access to URIs exposing that expose more fine-grained
      values to authorized Clients.  Restricted access URIs may be
      gathered in delegate IRDs as specified in Section 9.2.4 of
      [RFC7285].

      Also, while technically this document does not introduce any
      security risks not inherent in the Endpoint Property Service
      defined by [RFC7285], the GET-mode property map resource defined
      in this document does make it easier for a client to download
      large numbers of property values.  Accordingly, an ALTO Server
      should limit GET-mode property maps to properties that do not
      contain sensitive data.

      Section 12 of this document specifies that the ALTO service
      provider MUST be aware of the potential sensitivity of exposed
      entity domains and properties.  Section 12.2.2. 12.3.2 (ALTO Entity Domain
      Type Registration Process) of this document specifies that when
      the registration of an entity domain type is requested at the of IANA,
      the request MUST include security considerations that show
      awareness of how the exposed entity addresses may be related to
      private information about an ALTO client or an infrastructure
      service provider.  Likewise, Section 12.3. 12.4 (ALTO Entity Property
      Type
      Types Registry) of this document specifies that when the
      registration of a property type is requested at the of IANA, the request
      MUST include security considerations that explain why this
      property type is required for ALTO-based operations.

      The risk of ALTO information being leaked to malicious Clients or
      third parties is addressed similarly to Section 7 of [RFC8896].
      ALTO clients and servers SHOULD support TLS 1.3 [RFC8446].

12.  IANA Considerations

   This document defines additional application/alto-* media types, that
   which are listed in Table 1.  It defines an ALTO the "ALTO Entity Domain Type
   Registry
   Types" registry that extends the ALTO "ALTO Address Type Registry Types" registry
   defined in [RFC7285].  It also defines an ALTO the "ALTO Entity Property Type Registry
   Types" registry that extends the ALTO endpoint property "ALTO Endpoint Property Types"
   registry defined in [RFC7285].

         +=============+=========================+===============+
         | Type        | Subtype                 | Specification |
         +=============+=========================+===============+
         | application | alto-propmap+json       | Section 7.1   |
         +-------------+-------------------------+---------------+
         | application | alto-propmapparams+json | Section 8.3 8.1   |
         +-------------+-------------------------+---------------+

                    Table 1: Additional ALTO Media Types. Types

12.1.  application/alto-propmap+json Media Type

   Type name:
      application

   Subtype name:
      alto-propmap+json

   Required parameters:
      n/a

   Optional parameters:
      n/a

   Encoding considerations:
      Encoding considerations are identical to those specified for the
      "application/json" media type.  See [RFC8259].

   Security considerations:
      Security considerations related to the generation and consumption
      of ALTO Protocol messages are discussed in Section 15 of [RFC7285]
      and Section 11 of this document.

   Interoperability considerations:
      n/a

   Published specification:
      This document is the specification for this media type.  See
      Section 7.1.

   Applications that use this media type:
      ALTO servers and ALTO clients [RFC7285], either stand alone standalone or
      embedded within other applications, when the queried resource is a
      property map, whether filtered or not.

   Fragment identifier considerations:
      n/a

   Additional information:
      Magic number(s):  n/a

      File extension(s):  n/a

      Macintosh file type code(s):  n/a

   Person & email address to contact for further information:
      See Authors' Addresses section.

   Intended usage:
      COMMON

   Restrictions on usage:
      n/a

   Author:
      See Authors' Addresses section.

   Change controller:
      Internet Engineering Task Force (mailto:iesg@ietf.org).

12.2.  alto-propmapparams+json Media Type

   Type name:
      application

   Subtype name:
      alto-propmapparams+json

   Required parameters:
      n/a

   Optional parameters:
      n/a

   Encoding considerations:
      Encoding considerations are identical to those specified for the
      "application/json" media type.  See [RFC8259].

   Security considerations:
      Security considerations related to the generation and consumption
      of ALTO Protocol messages are discussed in Section 15 of [RFC7285]
      and Section 11 of this document.

   Interoperability considerations:
      n/a

   Published specification:
      This document is the specification for this media type.  See
      Section 8.3. 8.1.

   Applications that use this media type:
      ALTO servers and ALTO clients [RFC7285], either stand alone standalone or
      embedded within other applications, when the queried resource is a
      filtered property map.  This media-type media type indicates the data format
      used by the ALTO client to supply the property map filtering
      parameters.

   Fragment identifier considerations:
      n/a

   Additional information:
      Magic number(s):  n/a

      File extension(s):  n/a

      Macintosh file type code(s):  n/a

   Person & email address to contact for further information:
      See Authors' Addresses section.

   Intended usage:
      COMMON

   Restrictions on usage:
      n/a

   Author:
      See Authors' Addresses section.

   Change controller:
      Internet Engineering Task Force (mailto:iesg@ietf.org).

12.3.  ALTO Entity Domain Type Types Registry

   This document requests

   IANA to create has created and will maintain the "ALTO Entity Domain Type Registry", Types"
   registry listed in Table 2.  The first line row lists information items
   that must be provided with each registered entity domain type.
   Section 12.3.2 specifies how to document these items and in addition
   provides guidance on the security considerations item that must be documented in addition.
   documented.

   +==========+===========+=============+======================+=======+
   |Identifier|Entity     |Hierarchy &  |Media and|Media Type of Defining|Mapping|
   |          |Identifier |Inheritance  |Resource              |to ALTO|
   |          |Encoding   |             |                      |Address|
   |          |           |             |                      |Type   |
   +==========+===========+=============+======================+=======+
   |ipv4      |See Section|See          |application/alto-     |true   |
   |          |6.1.1      |Section 6.1.3|networkmap+json       |       |
   +----------+-----------+-------------+----------------------+-------+
   |ipv6      |See Section|See          |application/alto-     |true   |
   |          |6.1.2      |Section 6.1.3|networkmap+json       |       |
   +----------+-----------+-------------+----------------------+-------+
   |pid       |See        |None         |application/alto-     |false  |
   |          |Section 6.2|             |networkmap+json       |       |
   +----------+-----------+-------------+----------------------+-------+

                     Table 2: ALTO Entity Domain Types

   This registry serves two purposes.  First, it ensures uniqueness of
   identifiers referring to ALTO entity domain types.  Second, it states
   the requirements for allocated entity domain types.

   As specified in Section 5.1.1, identifiers prefixed with "priv:" are
   reserved for Private Use without a need to register with IANA

12.3.1.  Consistency Procedure between ALTO Address Type Types Registry and
         ALTO Entity Domain Type Types Registry

   One potential issue of introducing the "ALTO Entity Domain Type
   Registry" Types"
   registry is its relationship with the "ALTO Address Types Registry" Types" registry
   already defined in Section 14.4 of [RFC7285].  In particular, the
   entity identifier of a type of an entity domain registered in the
   "ALTO Entity Domain Type Registry" Types" registry MAY match an address type defined
   in "ALTO Address Type Registry". Types" registry.  It is necessary to precisely
   define and guarantee the consistency between "ALTO Address Type Registry" Types"
   registry and "ALTO Entity Domain Registry". Types" registry.

   We define that the ALTO "ALTO Entity Domain Type Registry Types" registry is consistent
   with ALTO "ALTO Address Type Registry Types" registry if two conditions are satisfied:

   *  When an address type is already registered or is able to be
      registered in the
      ALTO "ALTO Address Type Registry Types" registry [RFC7285], the
      same identifier MUST be used when a corresponding entity domain
      type is registered in the
      ALTO "ALTO Entity Domain Type Registry. Types" registry.

   *  If an ALTO entity domain type has the same identifier as an ALTO
      address type, their addresses encoding address encodings MUST be compatible.

   To achieve this consistency, the following items MUST be checked
   before registering a new ALTO entity domain type in a future
   document:

   *  Whether the ALTO "ALTO Address Type Registry Types" registry contains an address type
      that can be used as an identifier for the candidate entity domain
      type identifier.  This has been done for the identifiers "ipv4"
      and "ipv6" of Table 2.

   *  Whether the candidate entity domain type identifier can
      potentially be an endpoint address type, as defined in Sections
      2.1 and 2.2 of [RFC7285].

   When a new ALTO entity domain type is registered, the consistency
   with the ALTO "ALTO Address Type Registry Types" registry MUST be ensured by the
   following procedure:

   *  Test: Do corresponding entity domain type identifiers match a
      known "network" address type?

      -  If yes (e.g., cell, MAC MAC, or socket addresses):

         o  Test: Is such an address type present in the ALTO "ALTO Address
            Type Registry?
            Types" registry?

            +  If yes: Set the new ALTO entity domain type identifier to
               be the found ALTO address type identifier.

            +  If no: Define a new ALTO entity domain type identifier
               and use it to register a new address type in the ALTO "ALTO
               Address Type Registry Types" registry following Section 14.4 of
               [RFC7285].

         o  Use the new ALTO entity domain type identifier to register a
            new ALTO entity domain type in the ALTO "ALTO Entity Domain Type
            Registry
            Types" registry following Section 12.3.2 of this document.

      -  If no (e.g., pid name, ane name name, or country code): Proceed with
         the ALTO Entity Domain Type registration as described in
         Section 12.3.2.

12.3.2.  ALTO Entity Domain Type Registration Process

   New ALTO entity domain types are assigned after IETF Review [RFC8126]
   to ensure that proper documentation regarding the new ALTO entity
   domain types and their security considerations has been provided.
   RFCs defining new entity domain types MUST indicate how an entity in
   a registered type of domain is encoded as an EntityID, EntityID and, if
   applicable, the rules defining the entity hierarchy and property
   inheritance.  Updates and deletions of ALTO entity domains types
   follow the same procedure.

   Registered ALTO entity domain type identifiers MUST conform to the
   syntactical requirements specified in Section 5.1.2.  Identifiers are
   to be recorded and displayed as strings.

   Requests to the IANA to add a new value to the "ALTO Entity Domain Type Types"
   registry MUST include the following information:

   *

   Identifier:  The name of the desired ALTO entity domain type.

   *

   Entity Identifier Encoding:  The procedure for encoding the
      identifier of an entity of the registered domain type as an
      EntityID (see Section 5.1.3).  If corresponding entity identifiers
      of an entity domain type match a known "network" address type, the
      Entity Identifier Encoding of this domain identifier MUST include
      both Address Encoding and Prefix Encoding of the same identifier
      registered in the ALTO "ALTO Address Type Registry Types" registry [RFC7285].  To
      define properties, an individual entity identifier and the
      corresponding full-length prefix MUST be considered aliases for
      the same entity.

   *

   Hierarchy:  If the entities form a hierarchy, the procedure for
      determining that hierarchy.

   *

   Inheritance:  If entities can inherit property values from other
      entities, the procedure for determining that inheritance.

   *

   Media type of defining information resource:  Some entity domain
      types allow an entity domain name to be combined with an
      information resource name to define a resource-specific entity
      domain.  Such an information resource is called a "defining
      information resource", resource" and is defined in Section 4.6.  For each
      entity domain type, the potential defining information resources
      have one common media type.  This unique common media type is
      specific to the entity domain type and MUST be specified.

   *

   Mapping to ALTO Address Type:  A boolean value to indicate if the
      entity domain type can be mapped to the ALTO address type with the
      same identifier.

   *

   Security Considerations:  In some usage scenarios, entity identifiers
      carried in ALTO Protocol messages may reveal information about an
      ALTO client or an ALTO service provider.  Applications and ALTO
      service providers using addresses of the registered type should be
      cognizant of how (or if) the addressing scheme relates to private
      information and network proximity.

   This specification requests registration of

   IANA has registered the identifiers "ipv4",
   "ipv6" "ipv6", and "pid", as
   shown in Table 2.

12.4.  ALTO Entity Property Type Types Registry

   This document requests

   IANA to create has created and will maintain the "ALTO Entity Property Type Registry", Types"
   registry, which is listed in Table 3.

   This registry extends the "ALTO Endpoint Property Type Registry", Types" registry,
   defined in [RFC7285], in that a property type is defined on for one or
   more entity domains, rather than just on for IPv4 and IPv6 Internet
   address domains.  An entry in this registry is an ALTO entity
   property type defined in Section 5.2.1.  Thus, a registered ALTO
   entity property type identifier MUST conform to the syntactical
   requirements specified in that section.

   As specified in Section 5.2.1, identifiers prefixed with "priv:" are
   reserved for Private Use without a need to register with IANA.

   The first line row of Table 3 lists information items that must be
   provided with each registered entity property type.

   +============+====================+=================================+
   | Identifier | Intended Semantics | Media Type of                   |
   |            |                    | Defining Resource               |
   +============+====================+=================================+
   | pid        | See Section 7.1.1  | application/alto-               |
   |            | of [RFC7285]       | networkmap+json                 |
   +------------+--------------------+---------------------------------+

                    Table 3: ALTO Entity Property Types. Types

   New ALTO entity property types are assigned after IETF Review
   [RFC8126] to ensure that proper documentation regarding the new ALTO
   entity property types and their security considerations has been
   provided.  RFCs defining new entity property types SHOULD indicate
   how a property of a registered type is encoded as a property name.
   Updates and deletions of ALTO entity property types follow the same
   procedure.

   Requests to the IANA to add a new value to the registry MUST include the
   following information:

   *

   Identifier:  The identifier for the desired ALTO entity property
      type.  The format MUST be as defined in Section 5.2.1 of this
      document.

   *

   Intended Semantics:  ALTO entity properties carry with them semantics
      to guide their usage by ALTO clients.  Hence, a document defining
      a new type SHOULD provide guidance to both ALTO service providers
      and applications utilizing ALTO clients as to how values of the
      registered ALTO entity property should be interpreted.

   *

   Media type of defining information resource:  when the property type
      allows values to be defined relative to a given information
      resource, the latter is referred to as the "defining information
      resource",
      resource"; see the description in Section 4.7.  For each property
      type, the potential defining information resources have one common
      media type.  This unique common media type is specific to the
      property type and MUST be specified.

   *

   Security Considerations:  ALTO entity properties expose information
      to ALTO clients.  ALTO service providers should be cognizant of
      the security ramifications related to the exposure of an entity
      property.

   In security considerations, the request should also discuss the
   sensitivity of the information, information and why it is required for ALTO-based
   operations.  Regarding this discussion, the request SHOULD follow the
   recommendations of Section 14.3.  ALTO the "ALTO Endpoint Property Type
   Registry Types" registry in [RFC7285].

   This document requests registration
   Section 14.3 of [RFC7285].

   IANA has registered the identifier "pid", which is listed in Table 3.
   Semantics for this property are documented in Section 7.1.1 of
   [RFC7285].  No security issues related to the exposure of a "pid"
   identifier are considered, as it is exposed with the Network Map
   Service defined and mandated in [RFC7285].

13.  Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to thank Dawn Chen, and Shenshen Chen for
   their contributions to earlier drafts.  Thank you also to Qiao Xiang,
   Shawn Lin, Xin Wang and Vijay Gurbani for fruitful discussions.
   Last, big thanks to Danny Perez and Luis Contreras for their
   substantial Working Group review feedback and suggestions to improve
   this document, to Vijay Gurbani, ALTO WG Chair and Martin Duke,
   Transport Area Director, for their thorough review, discussions,
   guidance and shepherding, that further helped to enrich this
   document.

14.  References

14.1.

13.1.  Normative References

   [ISO3166-1]
              ISO (International
              International Organization for Standardization), .,
              "ISO 3166-1: Codes Standardization, "Codes for
              the representation of names of countries and their
              subdivisions -- Part 1: Country codes", ISO 3166-1:2020,
              August 2020.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
              RFC 3986, DOI 10.17487/RFC3986, January 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3986>.

   [RFC4291]  Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
              Architecture", RFC 4291, DOI 10.17487/RFC4291, February 2006.
              2006, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4291>.

   [RFC4632]  Fuller, V. and T. Li, "Classless Inter-domain Routing
              (CIDR): The Internet Address Assignment and Aggregation
              Plan", BCP 122, RFC 4632, DOI 10.17487/RFC4632, August
              2006, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4632>.

   [RFC5952]  Kawamura, S. and M. Kawashima, "A Recommendation for IPv6
              Address Text Representation", RFC 5952,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5952, August 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5952>.

   [RFC7285]  Alimi, R., Ed., Penno, R., Ed., Yang, Y., Ed., Kiesel, S.,
              Previdi, S., Roome, W., Shalunov, S., and R. Woundy,
              "Application-Layer Traffic Optimization (ALTO) Protocol",
              RFC 7285, DOI 10.17487/RFC7285, September 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7285>.

   [RFC8126]  Cotton, M., Leiba, B., and T. Narten, "Guidelines for
              Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26,
              RFC 8126, DOI 10.17487/RFC8126, June 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8126>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8259]  Bray, T., Ed., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
              Interchange Format", STD 90, RFC 8259,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8259, December 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8259>.

   [RFC8446]  Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol
              Version 1.3", RFC 8446, DOI 10.17487/RFC8446, August 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8446>.

   [RFC8895]  Roome, W. and Y. Yang, "Application-Layer Traffic
              Optimization (ALTO) Incremental Updates Using Server-Sent
              Events (SSE)", RFC 8895, DOI 10.17487/RFC8895, November
              2020, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8895>.

14.2.

13.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-alto-cdni-request-routing-alto]
              Seedorf, J., Yang, Y., Ma, K., Peterson, J., and J. Zhang,
              "Content Delivery Network Interconnection (CDNI) Request
              Routing: CDNI Footprint and Capabilities Advertisement
              using ALTO", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-
              alto-cdni-request-routing-alto-16, 12 January 2021,
              <http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-alto-cdni-
              request-routing-alto-16.txt>.

   [I-D.ietf-alto-path-vector]

   [PATH-VECTOR]
              Gao, K., Lee, Y., Randriamasy, S., Yang, Y., Y. R., and J. J.
              Zhang,
              "ALTO "An ALTO Extension: Path Vector", Work in Progress, Internet-
              Draft, draft-ietf-alto-path-vector-13,
              Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-alto-path-vector-25, 20 November 2020,
              <http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-alto-path-
              vector-13.txt>. March
              2022, <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-ietf-
              alto-path-vector-25>.

   [RFC3849]  Huston, G., Lord, A., and P. Smith, "IPv6 Address Prefix
              Reserved for Documentation", RFC 3849,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3849, July 2004. 2004,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3849>.

   [RFC5511]  Farrel, A., "Routing Backus-Naur Form (RBNF): A Syntax
              Used to Form Encoding Rules in Various Routing Protocol
              Specifications", RFC 5511, DOI 10.17487/RFC5511, April 2009.
              2009, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5511>.

   [RFC5737]  Arkko, J., Cotton, M., and L. Vegoda, "IPv4 Address Blocks
              Reserved for Documentation", RFC 5737,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5737, January 2010. 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5737>.

   [RFC7921]  Atlas, A., Halpern, J., Hares, S., Ward, D., and T.
              Nadeau, "An Architecture for the Interface to the Routing
              System", RFC 7921, DOI 10.17487/RFC7921, June 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7921>.

   [RFC8896]  Randriamasy, S., Yang, R., Wu, Q., Deng, L., and N.
              Schwan, "Application-Layer Traffic Optimization (ALTO)
              Cost Calendar", RFC 8896, DOI 10.17487/RFC8896, November
              2020, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8896>.

   [RFC9241]  Seedorf, J., Yang, Y., Ma, K., Peterson, J., and J. Zhang,
              "Content Delivery Network Interconnection (CDNI) Request
              Routing: CDNI Footprint and Capabilities Advertisement
              using ALTO", RFC 9241, DOI 10.17487/RFC9241, May 2022,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9241>.

Appendix A.  Features introduced Introduced with the Entity Property Maps extension Extension

   The Entity Property Maps extension described in this document
   introduces a number of features that are summarized in table below.
   The first column provides the name of the feature.  The second column
   provides the section number of this document that gives a high level high-level
   description of the feature.  The third column provides the section
   number of this document that gives a normative description relating
   to the feature, when applicable.

   +======================+=============+==============================+

       +======================+=============+======================+
       | Feature              | High-level High-Level  | Related normative Normative    |
       |                      | description Description | description Description          |
   +======================+=============+==============================+
       +======================+=============+======================+
       | Entity               | Section 3.1 | Section 5.1.3        |
   +----------------------+-------------+------------------------------+
       +----------------------+-------------+----------------------+
       | Entity domain (ED)   | Section 3.2 |                      |
   | (ED)                 |             |                              |
   +----------------------+-------------+------------------------------+
       +----------------------+-------------+----------------------+
       | Entity domain type   | Section     | Section 5.1.1        |
       | type                      | 3.2.1       |                      |
   +----------------------+-------------+------------------------------+
       +----------------------+-------------+----------------------+
       | Entity domain name   | Section     | Section 5.1.2        |
       | name                      | 3.2.2       |                      |
   +----------------------+-------------+------------------------------+
       +----------------------+-------------+----------------------+
       | Entity property (EP) | Section 3.3 | Section Sections 5.2, Section 5.2.1, |
       | (EP) type                 |             | Section 5.2.2, Section and 5.2.3     |
   +----------------------+-------------+------------------------------+
       +----------------------+-------------+----------------------+
       | Entity property map  | Section 3.4 | Section 7, Section Sections 7 and 8     |
   | map                  |             |                              |
   +----------------------+-------------+------------------------------+
       +----------------------+-------------+----------------------+
       | Resource-specific ED | Section 4.2 | Section 5.1.2, Sections 5.1.2 and   |
       | ED name                 |             | Section 5.1.2.1              |
   +----------------------+-------------+------------------------------+
       +----------------------+-------------+----------------------+
       | Resource-specific EP | Section 4.3 | Section 5.2.3        |
       | EP value                |             |                      |
   +----------------------+-------------+------------------------------+
       +----------------------+-------------+----------------------+
       | Entity Hierarchy and | Section 4.4 | Section 5.1.4        |
       | and property         |             |                              |
   | inheritance |             |                      |
   +----------------------+-------------+------------------------------+
       +----------------------+-------------+----------------------+
       | Defining             | Section     | Section 12.3.2, Section 12.4 |
   | information | 4.6, Sections    | Sections 12.3.2 and  |
       | resource             | Section 4.6 and 4.7 | 12.4                 |
   +----------------------+-------------+------------------------------+
       +----------------------+-------------+----------------------+

        Table 4: Features introduced Introduced with ALTO Entity Property Maps

Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to thank Dawn Chen and Shenshen Chen for their
   contributions to earlier drafts.  Thank you also to Qiao Xiang, Shawn
   Lin, Xin Wang, and Vijay Gurbani for fruitful discussions.  Last, big
   thanks to Danny Perez and Luis Contreras for their substantial
   working group review feedback and suggestions for improving this
   document, to Vijay Gurbani, ALTO WG Chair, and Martin Duke, Transport
   Area Director, for their thorough review, discussions, guidance, and
   shepherding, which further helped to enrich this document.

Authors' Addresses

   Wendy Roome
   Nokia Bell Labs (Retired)
   124 Burlington Rd
   Murray Hill, NJ 07974
   United States of America
   Phone: +1-908-464-6975
   Email: wendy@wdroome.com

   Sabine Randriamasy
   Nokia Bell Labs
   Route de Villejust
   91460 NOZAY
   France
   Email: Sabine.Randriamasy@nokia-bell-labs.com

   Y. Richard Yang
   Yale University
   51 Prospect Street
   New Haven, CT 06511
   United States of America
   Phone: +1-203-432-6400
   Email: yry@cs.yale.edu

   Jingxuan Jensen Zhang
   Tongji University
   4800 Cao'An Hwy
   Shanghai
   201804
   China
   Email: jingxuan.n.zhang@gmail.com

   Kai Gao
   Sichuan University
   No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road
   Chengdu
   610000
   China
   Email: kaigao@scu.edu.cn