Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                       C. Holmberg
Request for Comments: 8843                                      Ericsson
Updates: 3264, 5888, 7941                                  H. Alvestrand
Category: Standards Track                                         Google
ISSN: 2070-1721                                              C. Jennings
                                                                   Cisco
                                                                May 2020

 Negotiating Media Multiplexing Using the Session Description Protocol
                                 (SDP)

Abstract

   This specification defines a new Session Description Protocol (SDP)
   Grouping Framework extension called 'BUNDLE'.  The extension can be
   used with the SDP Offer/Answer mechanism to negotiate the usage of a
   single transport (5-tuple) for sending and receiving media described
   by multiple SDP media descriptions ("m=" sections).  Such transport
   is referred to as a BUNDLE transport, and the media is referred to as
   bundled media.  The "m=" sections that use the BUNDLE transport form
   a BUNDLE group.

   This specification updates RFC 3264, to also allow assigning a zero
   port value to an "m=" section in cases where the media described by
   the "m=" section is not disabled or rejected.

   This specification updates RFC 5888, to also allow an SDP 'group'
   attribute to contain an identification-tag that identifies an "m="
   section with the port set to zero.

   This specification defines a new RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) Source
   Description (SDES) item and a new RTP header extension that can be
   used to correlate bundled RTP/RTCP packets with their appropriate
   "m=" section. extension.

   This specification updates RFC 7941 by adding an exception, for the
   Media Identification (MID) RTP header extension, to the requirement
   regarding protection of an SDES RTP header extension carrying an SDES
   item for the MID RTP header extension. RFCs 3264, 5888, and 7941.

Status of This Memo

   This is an Internet Standards Track document.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
   Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8843.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2020 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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   Contributions published or made publicly available before November
   10, 2008.  The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this
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   Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling
   the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified
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   than English.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction
     1.1.  Background
     1.2.  BUNDLE Mechanism
     1.3.  Protocol Extensions
   2.  Terminology
   3.  Conventions
   4.  Applicability Statement
   5.  SDP Grouping Framework BUNDLE Extension
   6.  SDP 'bundle-only' Attribute
   7.  SDP Offer/Answer Procedures
     7.1.  Generic SDP Considerations
       7.1.1.  Connection Data ("c=")
       7.1.2.  Bandwidth ("b=")
       7.1.3.  Attributes ("a=")
     7.2.  Generating the Initial SDP Offer
       7.2.1.  Suggesting the Offerer-Tagged 'm=' Section
       7.2.2.  Example: Initial SDP Offer
     7.3.  Generating the SDP Answer
       7.3.1.  Answerer Selection of Tagged 'm=' Sections
       7.3.2.  Moving a Media Description Out of a BUNDLE Group
       7.3.3.  Rejecting a Media Description in a BUNDLE Group
       7.3.4.  Example: SDP Answer
     7.4.  Offerer Processing of the SDP Answer
     7.5.  Modifying the Session
       7.5.1.  Adding a Media Description to a BUNDLE Group
       7.5.2.  Moving a Media Description Out of a BUNDLE Group
       7.5.3.  Disabling a Media Description in a BUNDLE Group
   8.  Protocol Identification
     8.1.  STUN, DTLS, and SRTP
   9.  RTP Considerations
     9.1.  Single RTP Session
       9.1.1.  Payload Type (PT) Value Reuse
     9.2.  Associating RTP/RTCP Streams with the Correct SDP Media
           Description
     9.3.  RTP/RTCP Multiplexing
       9.3.1.  SDP Offer/Answer Procedures
   10. ICE Considerations
   11. DTLS Considerations
   12. RTP Header Extensions Consideration
   13. Update to RFC 3264
     13.1.  Original Text from Section 5.1 (2nd Paragraph) of RFC 3264 3264, Section 5.1, 2nd Paragraph
     13.2.  New Text Replacing Section 5.1 (2nd Paragraph) of RFC 3264 3264, Section 5.1, 2nd Paragraph
     13.3.  Original Text from Section 8.4 (6th Paragraph) of RFC 3264 3264, Section 8.4, 6th Paragraph
     13.4.  New Text Replacing Section 8.4 (6th Paragraph) of RFC 3264 3264, Section 8.4, 6th Paragraph
   14. Update to RFC 5888
     14.1.  Original Text from Section 9.2 (3rd Paragraph) of RFC 5888 5888, Section 9.2, 3rd Paragraph
     14.2.  New Text Replacing Section 9.2 (3rd Paragraph) of RFC 5888 5888, Section 9.2, 3rd Paragraph
   15. RTP/RTCP Extensions for identification-tag Transport
     15.1.  RTCP MID SDES Item
     15.2.  RTP SDES Header Extension For MID
   16. IANA Considerations
     16.1.  New SDES Item
     16.2.  New RTP SDES Header Extension URI
     16.3.  New SDP Attribute
     16.4.  New SDP Group Semantics
   17. Security Considerations
   18. Examples
     18.1.  Example: Tagged "m=" Section Selections
     18.2.  Example: BUNDLE Group Rejected
     18.3.  Example: Offerer Adds a Media Description to a BUNDLE
            Group
     18.4.  Example: Offerer Moves a Media Description Out of a BUNDLE
            Group
     18.5.  Example: Offerer Disables a Media Description within a
            BUNDLE Group
   19. References
     19.1.  Normative References
     19.2.  Informative References
   Appendix A.  Design Considerations
     A.1.  UA Interoperability
     A.2.  Usage of Port Number Value Zero
     A.3.  B2BUA and Proxy Interoperability
       A.3.1.  Traffic Policing
       A.3.2.  Bandwidth Allocation
     A.4.  Candidate Gathering
     Acknowledgements
   Authors' Addresses

1.  Introduction

1.1.  Background

   When the SDP offer/answer mechanism [RFC3264] is used to negotiate
   the establishment of multimedia communication sessions, if separate
   transports (5-tuples) are negotiated for each individual media
   stream, each transport consumes additional resources (especially when
   Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE) [RFC8445] is used).  For
   this reason, it is attractive to use a single transport for multiple
   media streams.

1.2.  BUNDLE Mechanism

   This specification defines a way to use a single transport (BUNDLE
   transport) for sending and receiving media (bundled media) described
   by multiple SDP media descriptions ("m=" sections).  The address:port
   combination used by an endpoint for sending and receiving bundled
   media is referred to as the BUNDLE address:port.  The set of SDP
   attributes that are applied to each "m=" section within a BUNDLE
   group is referred to as BUNDLE attributes.  The same BUNDLE transport
   is used for sending and receiving bundled media, which means that the
   symmetric Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) mechanism [RFC4961] is
   always used for RTP-based bundled media.

   This specification defines a new SDP Grouping Framework [RFC5888]
   extension called 'BUNDLE'.  The extension can be used with the
   Session Description Protocol (SDP) Offer/Answer mechanism [RFC3264]
   to negotiate which "m=" sections will become part of a BUNDLE group.
   In addition, the offerer and answerer [RFC3264] use the BUNDLE
   extension to negotiate the BUNDLE addresses:ports (offerer BUNDLE
   address:port and answerer BUNDLE address:port) and the set of BUNDLE
   attributes (offerer BUNDLE attributes and answerer BUNDLE attributes)
   that will be applied to each "m=" section within the BUNDLE group.

   The use of a BUNDLE transport allows the usage of a single set of ICE
   [RFC8445] candidates for the whole BUNDLE group.

   A given BUNDLE address:port MUST only be associated with a single
   BUNDLE group.  If an SDP offer or answer contains multiple BUNDLE
   groups, the procedures in this specification apply to each group
   independently.  All RTP-based bundled media associated with a given
   BUNDLE group belong to a single RTP session [RFC3550].

   The BUNDLE extension is backward compatible.  Endpoints that do not
   support the extension are expected to generate offers and answers
   without an SDP 'group:BUNDLE' attribute and assign a unique
   address:port to each "m=" section within an offer and answer,
   according to the procedures in [RFC3264] and [RFC4566].

1.3.  Protocol Extensions

   In addition to defining the new SDP Grouping Framework extension,
   this specification defines the following protocol extensions and RFC
   updates.  This specification:

   *  defines a new SDP attribute, 'bundle-only', which can be used to
      request that a specific "m=" section (and the associated media) be
      used only if kept within a BUNDLE group.

   *  updates RFC 3264 [RFC3264], to also allow assigning a zero port
      value to an "m=" section in cases where the media described by the
      "m=" section is not disabled or rejected.

   *  defines a new RTCP [RFC3550] SDES item, 'MID', and a new RTP SDES
      header extension that can be used to associate RTP streams with
      "m=" sections.

   *  updates [RFC7941] by adding an exception, for the MID RTP header
      extension, to the requirement regarding protection of an SDES RTP
      header extension carrying an SDES item for the MID RTP header
      extension.

2.  Terminology

      "m=" section:  SDP bodies contain one or more media descriptions,
         referred to as "m=" sections.  Each "m=" section is represented
         by an SDP "m=" line and zero or more SDP attributes associated
         with the "m=" line.  A local address:port combination is
         assigned to each "m=" section.

      5-tuple:  A collection of the following values: source address,
         source port, destination address, destination port, and
         transport-layer protocol.

      Unique address:port:  An address:port combination that is assigned
         to only one "m=" section in an offer or answer.

      Offerer BUNDLE-tag:  The first identification-tag in a given SDP
         'group:BUNDLE' attribute identification-tag list in an offer.

      Answerer BUNDLE-tag:  The first identification-tag in a given SDP
         'group:BUNDLE' attribute identification-tag list in an answer.

      Suggested offerer-tagged "m=" section:  The bundled "m=" section
         identified by the offerer BUNDLE-tag in an initial BUNDLE
         offer, before a BUNDLE group has been negotiated.

      Offerer-tagged "m=" section:  The bundled "m=" section identified
         by the offerer BUNDLE-tag in a subsequent offer.  The "m="
         section contains characteristics (offerer BUNDLE address:port
         and offerer BUNDLE attributes) that are applied to each "m="
         section within the BUNDLE group.

      Answerer-tagged "m=" section:  The bundled "m=" section identified
         by the answerer BUNDLE-tag in an answer (initial BUNDLE answer
         or subsequent).  The "m=" section contains characteristics
         (answerer BUNDLE address:port and answerer BUNDLE attributes)
         that are applied to each "m=" section within the BUNDLE group.

      BUNDLE address:port:  An address:port combination that an endpoint
         uses for sending and receiving bundled media.

      Offerer BUNDLE address:port:  The address:port combination used by
         the offerer for sending and receiving media.

      Answerer BUNDLE address:port:  The address:port combination used
         by the answerer for sending and receiving media.

      BUNDLE attributes:  IDENTICAL and TRANSPORT multiplexing category
         SDP attributes.  Once a BUNDLE group has been created, the
         attribute values apply to each bundled "m=" section within the
         BUNDLE group.

      Offerer BUNDLE attributes:  IDENTICAL and TRANSPORT multiplexing
         category SDP attributes included in the offerer-tagged "m="
         section.

      Answerer BUNDLE attributes:  IDENTICAL and TRANSPORT multiplexing
         category SDP attributes included in the answerer-tagged "m="
         section.

      BUNDLE transport:  The transport (5-tuple) used by all media
         described by the "m=" sections within a BUNDLE group.

      BUNDLE group:  A set of bundled "m=" sections sections, created using an
         SDP Offer/Answer exchange, which that uses a single BUNDLE transport,
         and a single set of BUNDLE attributes, for sending and
         receiving all media (bundled media) described by the set of
         "m=" sections.  The same BUNDLE transport is used for sending
         and receiving bundled media.

      Bundled "m=" section:  An "m=" section, whose identification-tag
         is placed in an SDP 'group:BUNDLE' attribute identification-tag
         list in an offer or answer.

      Bundle-only "m=" section:  A bundled "m=" section that contains an
         SDP 'bundle-only' attribute.

      Bundled media:  All media associated with a given BUNDLE group.

      Initial BUNDLE offer:  The first offer, within an SDP session
         (e.g., a SIP dialog when SIP [RFC3261] is used to carry SDP),
         in which the offerer indicates that it wants to negotiate a
         given BUNDLE group.

      Initial BUNDLE answer:  The answer to an initial BUNDLE offer in
         which the offerer indicates that it wants to negotiate a BUNDLE
         group, and the answerer accepts the creation of the BUNDLE
         group.  The BUNDLE group is created once the answerer sends the
         initial BUNDLE answer.

      Subsequent offer:  An offer that contains a BUNDLE group that has
         been created as part of a previous offer/answer exchange.

      Subsequent answer:  An answer to a subsequent offer.

      Identification-tag:  A unique token value that is used to identify
         an "m=" section.  The SDP 'mid' attribute [RFC5888] in an "m="
         section carries the unique identification-tag assigned to that
         "m=" section.  The session-level SDP 'group' attribute
         [RFC5888] carries a list of identification-tags, identifying
         the "m=" sections associated with that particular 'group'
         attribute.

3.  Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

4.  Applicability Statement

   The mechanism in this specification only applies to SDP [RFC4566],
   when used together with the SDP offer/answer mechanism [RFC3264].
   Declarative usage of SDP is out of scope of this document and is thus
   undefined.

5.  SDP Grouping Framework BUNDLE Extension

   This section defines a new SDP Grouping Framework [RFC5888]
   extension, 'BUNDLE'.  The BUNDLE extension can be used with the SDP
   Offer/Answer mechanism to negotiate a set of "m=" sections that will
   become part of a BUNDLE group.  Within a BUNDLE group, each "m="
   section uses a BUNDLE transport for sending and receiving bundled
   media.  Each endpoint uses a single address:port combination for
   sending and receiving the bundled media.

   The BUNDLE extension is indicated using an SDP 'group' attribute with
   a semantics value [RFC5888] of "BUNDLE".  An identification-tag is
   assigned to each bundled "m=" section, and each identification-tag is
   listed in the SDP 'group:BUNDLE' attribute identification-tag list.
   Each "m=" section whose identification-tag is listed in the
   identification-tag list is associated with a given BUNDLE group.

   SDP bodies can contain multiple BUNDLE groups.  Any given bundled
   "m=" section MUST NOT be associated with more than one BUNDLE group
   at any given time.

   NOTE: The order of the "m=" sections listed in the SDP 'group:BUNDLE'
   attribute identification-tag list does not have to be the same as the
   order in which the "m=" sections occur in the SDP.

   The multiplexing category [RFC8859] for the 'group:BUNDLE' attribute
   is 'NORMAL'.

   Section 7 defines the detailed SDP Offer/Answer procedures for the
   BUNDLE extension.

6.  SDP 'bundle-only' Attribute

   This section defines a new SDP media-level attribute [RFC4566],
   'bundle-only'. 'bundle-only' is a property attribute [RFC4566] and
   hence has no value.

   In order to ensure that an answerer that does not support the BUNDLE
   extension always rejects a bundled "m=" section in an offer, the
   offerer can assign a zero port value to the "m=" section.  According
   to [RFC3264], an answerer will reject such an "m=" section.  By
   including an SDP 'bundle-only' attribute in a bundled "m=" section,
   the offerer can request that the answerer accepts the "m=" section
   only if the answerer supports the BUNDLE extension and if the
   answerer keeps the "m=" section within the associated BUNDLE group.

      Name:  bundle-only

      Value:  N/A

      Usage Level:  media

      Charset Dependent:  no

      Example:  a=bundle-only

   Once the offerer-tagged "m=" section and the answerer-tagged "m="
   section have been selected, an offerer and answerer will include an
   SDP 'bundle-only' attribute in, and assign a zero port value to,
   every other bundled "m=" section.

   The usage of the 'bundle-only' attribute is only defined for a
   bundled "m=" section with a zero port value.  Other usage is
   unspecified.

   Section 7 defines the detailed SDP Offer/Answer procedures for the
   'bundle-only' attribute.

7.  SDP Offer/Answer Procedures

   This section describes the SDP Offer/Answer [RFC3264] procedures for:

   *  Negotiating a BUNDLE group;

   *  Suggesting and selecting the tagged "m=" sections (offerer-tagged
      "m=" section and answerer-tagged "m=" section);

   *  Adding an "m=" section to a BUNDLE group;

   *  Moving an "m=" section out of a BUNDLE group; and

   *  Disabling an "m=" section within a BUNDLE group.

   The generic rules and procedures defined in [RFC3264] and [RFC5888]
   also apply to the BUNDLE extension.  For example, if an offer is
   rejected by the answerer, the previously negotiated addresses:ports,
   SDP parameters, and characteristics (including those associated with
   a BUNDLE group) apply.  Hence, if an offerer generates an offer in
   order to negotiate a BUNDLE group, and the answerer rejects the
   offer, the BUNDLE group is not created.

   The procedures in this section are independent of the media type or
   "m=" line proto value assigned to a bundled "m=" section.  Section 6
   defines additional considerations for the usage of the SDP 'bundle-
   only' attribute.  Section 9 defines additional considerations for
   RTP-based media.  Section 10 defines additional considerations for
   the usage of the ICE [RFC8445] mechanism.

   Offers and answers can contain multiple BUNDLE groups.  The
   procedures in this section apply independently to a given BUNDLE
   group.

7.1.  Generic SDP Considerations

   This section describes generic restrictions associated with the usage
   of SDP parameters within a BUNDLE group.  It also describes how to
   calculate a value for the whole BUNDLE group, when parameter and
   attribute values have been assigned to each bundled "m=" section.

7.1.1.  Connection Data ("c=")

   The "c=" line nettype value [RFC4566] associated with a bundled "m="
   section MUST be 'IN'.

   The "c=" line addrtype value [RFC4566] associated with a bundled "m="
   section MUST be 'IP4' or 'IP6'.  The same value MUST be associated
   with each "m=" section.

   NOTE: Extensions to this specification can specify usage of the
   BUNDLE mechanism for other nettype and addrtype values than the ones
   listed above.

7.1.2.  Bandwidth ("b=")

   An offerer and answerer MUST use the rules and restrictions defined
   in [RFC8859] for associating the SDP bandwidth ("b=") line with
   bundled "m=" sections.

7.1.3.  Attributes ("a=")

   An offerer and answerer MUST include SDP attributes in every bundled
   "m=" section where applicable, following the normal offer/answer
   procedures for each attribute, with the following exceptions:

   *  In the initial BUNDLE offer, the offerer MUST NOT include
      IDENTICAL and TRANSPORT multiplexing category SDP attributes
      (BUNDLE attributes) in bundle-only "m=" sections.  The offerer
      MUST include such attributes in all other bundled "m=" sections.
      In the initial BUNDLE offer, each bundled "m=" line can contain a
      different set of BUNDLE attributes and attribute values.  Once the
      offerer-tagged "m=" section has been selected, the BUNDLE
      attributes contained in the offerer-tagged "m=" section will apply
      to each bundled "m=" section within the BUNDLE group.

   *  In a subsequent offer, or in an answer (initial of subsequent),
      the offerer and answerer MUST include IDENTICAL and TRANSPORT
      multiplexing category SDP attributes (BUNDLE attributes) only in
      the tagged "m=" section (offerer-tagged "m=" section or answerer-
      tagged "m=" section).  The offerer and answerer MUST NOT include
      such attributes in any other bundled "m=" section.  The BUNDLE
      attributes contained in the tagged "m=" section will apply to each
      bundled "m=" section within the BUNDLE group.

   *  In an offer (initial BUNDLE offer or subsequent), or in an answer
      (initial BUNDLE answer or subsequent), the offerer and answerer
      MUST include SDP attributes from categories other than IDENTICAL
      and TRANSPORT in each bundled "m=" section that a given attribute
      applies to.  Each bundled "m=" line can contain a different set of
      such attributes, and attribute values, as such attributes only
      apply to the given bundled "m=" section in which they are
      included.

   NOTE: A consequence of the rules above is that media-specific
   IDENTICAL and TRANSPORT multiplexing category SDP attributes that are
   applicable only to some of the bundled "m=" sections within the
   BUNDLE group might appear in the tagged "m=" section for which they
   are not applicable.  For instance, the tagged "m=" section might
   contain an SDP 'rtcp-mux' attribute even if the tagged "m=" section
   does not describe RTP-based media (but another bundled "m=" section
   within the BUNDLE group does describe RTP-based media).

7.2.  Generating the Initial SDP Offer

   The procedures in this section apply to the first offer, within an
   SDP session (e.g., a SIP dialog when SIP [RFC3261] is used to carry
   SDP), in which the offerer indicates that it wants to negotiate a
   given BUNDLE group.  This could occur in the initial offer, or in a
   subsequent offer, of the SDP session.

   When an offerer generates an initial BUNDLE offer, in order to
   negotiate a BUNDLE group, it MUST:

   *  Assign a unique address:port to each bundled "m=" section,
      following the procedures in [RFC3264], excluding any bundle-only
      "m=" sections (see below);

   *  Pick a bundled "m=" section as the suggested offerer-tagged "m="
      (Section 7.2.1);

   *  Include SDP attributes in the bundled "m=" sections following the
      rules in Section 7.1.3;

   *  Include an SDP 'group:BUNDLE' attribute in the offer; and

   *  Place the identification-tag of each bundled "m=" section in the
      SDP 'group:BUNDLE' attribute identification-tag list.  The offerer
      BUNDLE-tag indicates the suggested offerer-tagged "m=" section.

   NOTE: When the offerer assigns unique addresses:ports to multiple
   bundled "m=" sections, the offerer needs to be prepared to receive
   bundled media on each unique address:port, until it receives the
   associated answer and finds out which bundled "m=" section (and
   associated address:port combination) the answerer has selected as the
   offerer-tagged "m=" section.

   If the offerer wants to request that the answerer accepts a given
   bundled "m=" section only if the answerer keeps the "m=" section
   within the negotiated BUNDLE group, the offerer MUST:

   *  Include an SDP 'bundle-only' attribute (Section 7.2.1) in the "m="
      section, and

   *  Assign a zero port value to the "m=" section.

   NOTE: If the offerer assigns a zero port value to a bundled "m="
   section, but does not include an SDP 'bundle-only' attribute in the
   "m=" section, it is an indication that the offerer wants to disable
   the "m=" section (Section 7.5.3).

   Sections 7.2.2 and 18.1 show an example of an initial BUNDLE offer.

7.2.1.  Suggesting the Offerer-Tagged 'm=' Section

   In the initial BUNDLE offer, the bundled "m=" section indicated by
   the offerer BUNDLE-tag is the suggested offerer-tagged "m=" section.
   The address:port combination associated with the "m=" section will be
   used by the offerer for sending and receiving bundled media if the
   answerer selects the "m=" section as the offerer-tagged "m=" section
   (Section 7.3.1).  In addition, if the answerer selects the "m="
   section as the offerer-tagged "m=" section, the BUNDLE attributes
   included in the "m=" section will be applied to each "m=" section
   within the negotiated BUNDLE group.

   The offerer MUST NOT suggest a bundle-only "m=" section as the
   offerer-tagged "m=" section.

   It is RECOMMENDED that the suggested offerer-tagged "m=" section be a
   bundled "m=" section that the offerer believes is unlikely that the
   answerer will reject or move out of the BUNDLE group.  How such
   assumption is made is outside the scope of this document.

7.2.2.  Example: Initial SDP Offer

   The example shows an initial BUNDLE offer.  The offer includes two
   "m=" sections in the offer and suggests that both "m=" sections are
   included in a BUNDLE group.  The audio "m=" section is the suggested
   offerer-tagged "m=" section, indicated by placing the identification-
   tag associated with the "m=" section (offerer BUNDLE-tag) first in
   the SDP group:BUNDLE attribute identification-id list.

   SDP Offer

     v=0
     o=alice 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP6 2001:db8::3
     s=
     c=IN IP6 2001:db8::3
     t=0 0
     a=group:BUNDLE foo bar

     m=audio 10000 RTP/AVP 0 8 97
     b=AS:200
     a=mid:foo
     a=rtcp-mux
     a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
     a=rtpmap:8 PCMA/8000
     a=rtpmap:97 iLBC/8000
     a=extmap:1 urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:sdes:mid

     m=video 10002 RTP/AVP 31 32
     b=AS:1000
     a=mid:bar
     a=rtcp-mux
     a=rtpmap:31 H261/90000
     a=rtpmap:32 MPV/90000
     a=extmap:1 urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:sdes:mid

7.3.  Generating the SDP Answer

   When an answerer generates an answer (initial BUNDLE answer or
   subsequent) that contains a BUNDLE group, the following general SDP
   Grouping Framework restrictions, defined in [RFC5888], also apply to
   the BUNDLE group:

   *  The answerer is only allowed to include a BUNDLE group in an
      initial BUNDLE answer if the offerer requested the BUNDLE group to
      be created in the corresponding initial BUNDLE offer;

   *  The answerer is only allowed to include a BUNDLE group in a
      subsequent answer if the corresponding subsequent offer contains a
      previously negotiated BUNDLE group;

   *  The answerer is only allowed to include a bundled "m=" section in
      an answer if the "m=" section was indicated as bundled in the
      corresponding offer; and

   *  The answerer is only allowed to include a bundled "m=" section in
      the same BUNDLE group as the bundled "m=" line in the
      corresponding offer.

   In addition, when an answerer generates an answer (initial BUNDLE
   answer or subsequent) that contains a BUNDLE group, the answerer
   MUST:

   *  In case of an initial BUNDLE answer, select the offerer-tagged
      "m=" section using the procedures in Section 7.3.1.  In case of a
      subsequent answer, the offerer-tagged "m=" section is indicated in
      the corresponding subsequent offer and MUST NOT be changed by the
      answerer;

   *  Select the answerer-tagged "m=" section (Section 7.3.1);

   *  Assign the answerer BUNDLE address:port to the answerer-tagged
      "m=" section;

   *  Include an SDP 'bundle-only' attribute in, and assign a zero port
      value to, every other bundled "m=" section within the BUNDLE
      group;

   *  Include SDP attributes in the bundled "m=" sections following the
      rules in Section 7.1.3;

   *  Include an SDP 'group:BUNDLE' attribute in the answer; and

   *  Place the identification-tag of each bundled "m=" section in the
      SDP 'group:BUNDLE' attribute identification-tag list.  The
      answerer BUNDLE-tag indicates the answerer-tagged "m=" section
      (Section 7.3.1).

   If the answerer does not want to keep an "m=" section within a BUNDLE
   group, it MUST:

   *  Move the "m=" section out of the BUNDLE group (Section 7.3.2); or

   *  Reject the "m=" section (Section 7.3.3).

   The answerer can modify the answerer BUNDLE address:port, add and
   remove SDP attributes, or modify SDP attribute values in a subsequent
   answer.  Changes to the answerer BUNDLE address:port and the answerer
   BUNDLE attributes will be applied to each bundled "m=" section within
   the BUNDLE group.

   NOTE: If a bundled "m=" section in an offer contains a zero port
   value, but the "m=" section does not contain an SDP 'bundle-only'
   attribute, it is an indication that the offerer wants to disable the
   "m=" section (Section 7.5.3).

7.3.1.  Answerer Selection of Tagged 'm=' Sections

   When the answerer selects selecting the offerer-tagged "m=" section, it first
   checks the suggested offerer-tagged "m=" section (Section 7.2.1).
   The answerer MUST
   first check whether the "m=" section fulfils the following criteria: criteria
   Section 7.2.1:

   *  The answerer will not move the "m=" section out of the BUNDLE
      group (Section 7.3.2);

   *  The answerer will not reject the "m=" section (Section 7.3.3); and

   *  The "m=" section does not contain a zero port value.

   If all of the criteria above are fulfilled, the answerer MUST select
   the "m=" section as the offerer-tagged "m=" section and MUST also
   mark the corresponding "m=" section in the answer as the answerer-
   tagged "m=" section.  In the answer, the answerer BUNDLE-tag
   indicates the answerer-tagged "m=" section.

   If one or more of the criteria are not fulfilled, the answerer MUST
   pick the next identification-tag in the identification-tag list in
   the offer and perform the same criteria check for the "m=" section
   indicated by that identification-tag.  If there are no more
   identification-tags in the identification-tag list, the answerer MUST
   NOT create the BUNDLE group.  Unless the answerer rejects the whole
   offer, the answerer MUST apply the answerer procedures for moving an
   "m=" section out of a BUNDLE group (Section 7.3.2) or rejecting an
   "m=" section within a BUNDLE group (Section 7.3.3) to every bundled
   "m=" section in the offer when creating the answer.

   Section 18.1 shows an example of an offerer BUNDLE address:port
   selection.

   Sections 7.3.4 and 18.1 show an example of an answerer-tagged "m="
   section selection.

7.3.2.  Moving a Media Description Out of a BUNDLE Group

   When an answerer generates the answer, if the answerer wants to move
   a bundled "m=" section out of the negotiated BUNDLE group, the
   answerer MUST first check the following criteria:

   *  In the corresponding offer, the "m=" section is within a
      previously negotiated BUNDLE group, and

   *  In the corresponding offer, the "m=" section contains an SDP
      'bundle-only' attribute.

   If either criterion above is fulfilled, the answerer cannot move the
   "m=" section out of the BUNDLE group in the answer.  The answerer can
   reject the whole offer, reject each bundled "m=" section within the
   BUNDLE group (Section 7.3.3), or keep the "m=" section within the
   BUNDLE group in the answer and later create an offer where the "m="
   section is moved out of the BUNDLE group (Section 7.5.2).

   NOTE: One consequence of the rules above is that, once a BUNDLE group
   has been negotiated, a bundled "m=" section cannot be moved out of
   the BUNDLE group in an answer.  Instead, an offer is needed.

   When the answerer generates an answer, in which it moves a bundled
   "m=" section out of a BUNDLE group, the answerer:

   *  MUST assign a unique address:port to the "m=" section;

   *  MUST include any applicable SDP attribute in the "m=" section,
      using the normal offer/answer procedures for each attribute;

   *  MUST NOT place the identification-tag associated with the "m="
      section in the SDP 'group:BUNDLE' attribute identification-tag
      list associated with the BUNDLE group; and

   *  MUST NOT include an SDP 'bundle-only' attribute to the "m="
      section.

   Because an answerer is not allowed to move an "m=" section from one
   BUNDLE group to another within an answer (Section 7.3), if the
   answerer wants to move an "m=" section from one BUNDLE group to
   another, it MUST first move the "m=" section out of the current
   BUNDLE group and then generate an offer where the "m=" section is
   added to another BUNDLE group (Section 7.5.1).

7.3.3.  Rejecting a Media Description in a BUNDLE Group

   When an answerer wants to reject a bundled "m=" section in an answer,
   it MUST first check the following criterion:

   *  In the corresponding offer, the "m=" section is the offerer-tagged
      "m=" section.

   If the criterion above is fulfilled, the answerer cannot reject the
   "m=" section in the answer.  The answerer can reject the whole offer,
   reject each bundled "m=" section within the BUNDLE group, or keep the
   "m=" section within the BUNDLE group in the answer and later create
   an offer where the "m=" section is disabled within the BUNDLE group
   (Section 7.5.3).

   When an answerer generates an answer, in which it rejects a bundled
   "m=" section, the answerer:

   *  MUST assign a zero port value to the "m=" section, according to
      the procedures in [RFC3264];

   *  MUST NOT place the identification-tag associated with the "m="
      section in the SDP 'group:BUNDLE' attribute identification-tag
      list associated with the BUNDLE group; and

   *  MUST NOT include an SDP 'bundle-only' attribute in the "m="
      section.

7.3.4.  Example: SDP Answer

   The example below shows an answer, based on the corresponding offer
   in Section 7.2.2.  The answerer accepts both bundled "m=" sections
   within the created BUNDLE group.  The audio "m=" section is the
   answerer-tagged "m=" section, indicated by placing the
   identification-tag associated with the "m=" section (answerer BUNDLE-
   tag) first in the SDP group;BUNDLE attribute identification-id list.
   The answerer includes an SDP 'bundle-only' attribute in, and assigns
   a zero port value to, the video "m=" section.

   SDP Answer

     v=0
     o=bob 2808844564 2808844564 IN IP6 2001:db8::1
     s=
     c=IN IP6 2001:db8::1
     t=0 0
     a=group:BUNDLE foo bar

     m=audio 20000 RTP/AVP 0
     b=AS:200
     a=mid:foo
     a=rtcp-mux
     a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
     a=extmap:1 urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:sdes:mid

     m=video 0 RTP/AVP 32
     b=AS:1000
     a=mid:bar
     a=bundle-only
     a=rtpmap:32 MPV/90000
     a=extmap:1 urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:sdes:mid

7.4.  Offerer Processing of the SDP Answer

   When an offerer receives an answer, if the answer contains a BUNDLE
   group, the offerer MUST check that any bundled "m=" section in the
   answer was indicated as bundled in the corresponding offer.  If there
   is no mismatch, the offerer MUST apply the properties (BUNDLE
   address:port, BUNDLE attributes, etc.) of the offerer-tagged "m="
   section (selected by the answerer; see Section 7.3.1) to each bundled
   "m=" section within the BUNDLE group.

   NOTE: As the answerer might reject one or more bundled "m=" sections
   in an initial BUNDLE offer, or move a bundled "m=" section out of a
   BUNDLE group, a given bundled "m=" section in the offer might not be
   indicated as bundled in the corresponding answer.

   If the answer does not contain a BUNDLE group, the offerer MUST
   process the answer as a normal answer.

7.5.  Modifying the Session

   When a BUNDLE group has been previously negotiated, and an offerer
   generates a subsequent offer, the offerer MUST:

   *  Pick one bundled "m=" section as the offerer-tagged "m=" section.
      The offerer can pick either the "m=" section that was previously
      selected by the answerer as the offerer-tagged "m=" section or
      another bundled "m=" section within the BUNDLE group;

   *  Assign a BUNDLE address:port (previously negotiated or newly
      suggested) to the offerer-tagged "m=" section;

   *  Include an SDP 'bundle-only' attribute in, and assign a zero port
      value to, every other bundled "m=" section within the BUNDLE
      group;

   *  Include SDP attributes in the bundled "m=" sections following the
      rules in Section 7.1.3;

   *  Include an SDP 'group:BUNDLE' attribute in the offer; and

   *  Place the identification-tag of each bundled "m=" section in the
      SDP 'group:BUNDLE' attribute identification-tag list.  The offerer
      BUNDLE-tag indicates the offerer-tagged "m=" section.

   The offerer MUST NOT pick a given bundled "m=" section as the
   offerer-tagged "m=" section if:

   *  The offerer wants to move the "m=" section out of the BUNDLE group
      (Section 7.5.2), or

   *  The offerer wants to disable the "m=" section (Section 7.5.3).

   The offerer can modify the offerer BUNDLE address:port, add and
   remove SDP attributes, or modify SDP attribute values in the
   subsequent offer.  Changes to the offerer BUNDLE address:port and the
   offerer BUNDLE attributes will (if the offer is accepted by the
   answerer) be applied to each bundled "m=" section within the BUNDLE
   group.

7.5.1.  Adding a Media Description to a BUNDLE Group

   When an offerer generates a subsequent offer, in which it wants to
   add a bundled "m=" section to a previously negotiated BUNDLE group,
   the offerer follows the procedures in Section 7.5.  The offerer picks
   either the added "m=" section or an "m=" section previously added to
   the BUNDLE group as the offerer-tagged "m=" section.

   NOTE: As described in Section 7.3.2, the answerer cannot move the
   added "m=" section out of the BUNDLE group in its answer.  If the
   answer wants to move the "m=" section out of the BUNDLE group, it
   will have to first accept it into the BUNDLE group in the answer, and
   then send a subsequent offer where the "m=" section is moved out of
   the BUNDLE group (Section 7.5.2).

7.5.2.  Moving a Media Description Out of a BUNDLE Group

   When an offerer generates a subsequent offer, in which it wants to
   remove a bundled "m=" section from a BUNDLE group, the offerer:

   *  MUST assign a unique address:port to the "m=" section;

   *  MUST include SDP attributes in the "m=" section following the
      normal offer/answer rules for each attribute;

   *  MUST NOT place the identification-tag associated with the "m="
      section in the SDP 'group:BUNDLE' attribute identification-tag
      list associated with the BUNDLE group; and

   *  MUST NOT assign an SDP 'bundle-only' attribute to the "m="
      section.

   For the other bundled "m=" sections within the BUNDLE group, the
   offerer follows the procedures in Section 7.5.

   An offerer MUST NOT move an "m=" section from one BUNDLE group to
   another within a single offer.  If the offerer wants to move an "m="
   section from one BUNDLE group to another, it MUST first move the
   BUNDLE group out of the current BUNDLE group, and then generate a
   second offer where the "m=" section is added to another BUNDLE group
   (Section 7.5.1).

   Section 18.4 shows an example of an offer for moving an "m=" section
   out of a BUNDLE group.

7.5.3.  Disabling a Media Description in a BUNDLE Group

   When an offerer generates a subsequent offer, in which it wants to
   disable a bundled "m=" section from a BUNDLE group, the offerer:

   *  MUST assign a zero port value to the "m=" section, following the
      procedures in [RFC4566];

   *  MUST NOT place the identification-tag associated with the "m="
      section in the SDP 'group:BUNDLE' attribute identification-tag
      list associated with the BUNDLE group; and

   *  MUST NOT assign an SDP 'bundle-only' attribute to the "m="
      section.

   For the other bundled "m=" sections within the BUNDLE group, the
   offerer follows the procedures in Section 7.5.

   Section 18.5 shows an example of an offer and answer for disabling an
   "m=" section within a BUNDLE group.

8.  Protocol Identification

   Each "m=" section within a BUNDLE group MUST use the same transport-
   layer protocol.  If bundled "m=" sections use different upper-layer
   protocols on top of the transport-layer protocol, there MUST exist a
   publicly available specification that describes how a mechanism
   associates received data with the correct protocol for this
   particular protocol combination.

   In addition, if received data can be associated with more than one
   bundled "m=" section, there MUST exist a publicly available
   specification that describes a mechanism for associating the received
   data with the correct "m=" section.

   This document describes a mechanism to identify the protocol of
   received data among the Session Traversal Utilities for NAT (STUN),
   DTLS, and the Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP) (in any
   combination) when UDP is used as a transport-layer protocol, but it
   does not describe how to identify different protocols transported on
   DTLS.  While the mechanism is generally applicable to other protocols
   and transport-layer protocols, any such use requires further
   specification around that encompasses how to multiplex multiple protocols on
   a given transport-layer protocol and how to associate received data
   with the correct protocols.

8.1.  STUN, DTLS, and SRTP

   Section 5.1.2 of [RFC5764] describes a mechanism to identify the
   protocol of a received packet among the STUN, DTLS, and SRTP
   protocols (in any combination).  If an offer or answer includes a
   bundled "m=" section that represents these protocols, the offerer or
   answerer MUST support the mechanism described in [RFC5764], and no
   explicit negotiation is required in order to indicate support and
   usage of the mechanism.

   [RFC5764] does not describe how to identify different protocols
   transported on DTLS, only how to identify the DTLS protocol itself.
   If multiple protocols are transported on DTLS, there MUST exist a
   specification describing a mechanism for identifying each individual
   protocol.  In addition, if a received DTLS packet can be associated
   with more than one "m=" section, there MUST exist a specification
   that describes a mechanism for associating the received DTLS packets
   with the correct "m=" section.

   Section 9.2 describes how to associate the packets in a received SRTP
   stream with the correct "m=" section.

9.  RTP Considerations

9.1.  Single RTP Session

   All RTP-based media within a single BUNDLE group belong to a single
   RTP session [RFC3550].

   Since a single BUNDLE transport is used for sending and receiving
   bundled media, the symmetric RTP mechanism [RFC4961] MUST be used for
   RTP-based bundled media.

   Since a single RTP session is used for each BUNDLE group, all "m="
   sections representing RTP-based media within a BUNDLE group will
   share a single Synchronization Source (SSRC) numbering space
   [RFC3550].

   The following rules and restrictions apply for a single RTP session:

   *  A specific payload type value can be used in multiple bundled "m="
      sections only if each codec associated with the payload type
      number shares an identical codec configuration (Section 9.1.1).

   *  The proto value in each bundled RTP-based "m=" section MUST be
      identical (e.g., RTP/AVPF).

   *  The RTP MID header extension MUST be enabled, by including an SDP
      'extmap' attribute [RFC8285], with an 'urn:ietf:params:rtp-
      hdrext:sdes:mid' URI value, in each bundled RTP-based "m=" section
      in every offer and answer.

   *  A given SSRC MUST NOT transmit RTP packets using payload types
      that originate from different bundled "m=" sections.

   NOTE: The last bullet above is to avoid sending multiple media types
   from the same SSRC.  If transmission of multiple media types are done
   with time overlap, RTP and RTCP fail to function.  Even if done in
   proper sequence, this causes RTP timestamp rate switching issues
   [RFC7160].  However, once an SSRC has left the RTP session (by
   sending an RTCP BYE packet), that SSRC can be reused by another
   source (possibly associated with a different bundled "m=" section)
   after a delay of 5 RTCP reporting intervals (the delay is to ensure
   the SSRC has timed out, in case the RTCP BYE packet was lost
   [RFC3550]).

   [RFC7657] defines Differentiated Services (Diffserv) considerations
   for RTP-based bundled media sent using a mixture of Diffserv
   Codepoints.

9.1.1.  Payload Type (PT) Value Reuse

   Multiple bundled "m=" sections might describe RTP-based media.  As
   all RTP-based media associated with a BUNDLE group belong to the same
   RTP session, in order for a given payload type value to be used
   inside more than one bundled "m=" section, all codecs associated with
   the payload type number MUST share an identical codec configuration.
   This means that the codecs MUST share the same media type, encoding
   name, clock rate, and any parameter that can affect the codec
   configuration and packetization.  [RFC8859] lists SDP attributes,
   whose attribute values are required to be identical for all codecs
   that use the same payload type value.

9.2.  Associating RTP/RTCP Streams with the Correct SDP Media
      Description

   As described in [RFC3550], RTP packets are associated with RTP
   streams [RFC7656].  Each RTP stream is identified by an SSRC value,
   and each RTP packet includes an SSRC field that is used to associate
   the packet with the correct RTP stream.  RTCP packets also use SSRCs
   to identify which RTP streams the packet relates to.  However, an
   RTCP packet can contain multiple SSRC fields, in the course of
   providing feedback or reports on different RTP streams, and therefore
   can be associated with multiple such streams.

   In order to be able to process received RTP/RTCP packets correctly,
   it MUST be possible to associate an RTP stream with the correct "m="
   section, as the "m=" section and SDP attributes associated with the
   "m=" section contains information needed to process the packets.

   As all RTP streams associated with a BUNDLE group use the same
   transport for sending and receiving RTP/RTCP packets, the local
   address:port combination part of the transport cannot be used to
   associate an RTP stream with the correct "m=" section.  In addition,
   multiple RTP streams might be associated with the same "m=" section.

   An offerer and answerer can inform each other which SSRC values they
   will use for an RTP stream by using the SDP 'ssrc' attribute
   [RFC5576].  However, an offerer will not know which SSRC values the
   answerer will use until the offerer has received the answer providing
   that information.  Due to this, before the offerer has received the
   answer, the offerer will not be able to associate an RTP stream with
   the correct "m=" section using the SSRC value associated with the RTP
   stream.  In addition, the offerer and answerer may start using new
   SSRC values mid-session, without informing each other about using the
   SDP 'ssrc' attribute.

   In order for an offerer and answerer to always be able to associate
   an RTP stream with the correct "m=" section, the offerer and answerer
   using the BUNDLE extension MUST support the mechanism defined in
   Section 15, where the offerer and answerer insert the identification-
   tag associated with an "m=" section (provided by the remote peer)
   into RTP and RTCP packets associated with a BUNDLE group.

   When using this mechanism, the mapping from an SSRC to an
   identification-tag is carried in RTP header extensions or RTCP SDES
   packets, as specified in Section 15.  Since a compound RTCP packet
   can contain multiple RTCP SDES packets, and each RTCP SDES packet can
   contain multiple chunks, a single RTCP packet can contain several
   mappings of SSRC to identification-tag.  The offerer and answerer
   maintain tables used for routing that are updated each time an RTP/
   RTCP packet contains new information that affects how packets are to
   be routed.

   However, some legacy implementations may not include this
   identification-tag in their RTP and RTCP traffic when using the
   BUNDLE mechanism and instead use a mechanism based on the payload
   type to associate RTP streams with SDP "m=" sections.  In this
   situation, each "m=" section needs to use unique payload type values,
   in order for the payload type to be a reliable indicator of the
   relevant "m=" section for the RTP stream.  If an implementation fails
   to ensure unique payload type values, it will be impossible to
   associate the RTP stream using that payload type value to a
   particular "m=" section.  Note that when using the payload type to
   associate RTP streams with "m=" sections, an RTP stream, identified
   by its SSRC, will be mapped to an "m=" section when the first packet
   of that RTP stream is received, and the mapping will not be changed
   even if the payload type used by that RTP stream changes.  In other
   words, the SSRC cannot "move" to a different "m=" section simply by
   changing the payload type.

   Applications can implement RTP stacks in many different ways.  The
   algorithm below details one way that RTP streams can be associated
   with "m=" sections, but it is not meant to be prescriptive about
   exactly how an RTP stack needs to be implemented.  Applications MAY
   use any algorithm that achieves equivalent results to those described
   in the algorithm below.

   To prepare to associate RTP streams with the correct "m=" section,
   the following steps MUST be followed for each BUNDLE group:

   *  Construct a table mapping a MID to an "m=" section for each "m="
      section in this BUNDLE group.  Note that an "m=" section may only
      have one MID.

   *  Construct a table mapping SSRCs of incoming RTP streams to an "m="
      section for each "m=" section in this BUNDLE group and for each
      SSRC configured for receiving in that "m=" section.

   *  Construct a table mapping the SSRC of each outgoing RTP stream to
      an "m=" section for each "m=" section in this BUNDLE group and for
      each SSRC configured for sending in that "m=" section.

   *  Construct a table mapping a payload type to an "m=" section for
      each "m=" section in the BUNDLE group and for each payload type
      configured for receiving in that "m=" section.  If any payload
      type is configured for receiving in more than one "m=" section in
      the BUNDLE group, do not include it in the table, as it cannot be
      used to uniquely identify an "m=" section.

   *  Note that for each of these tables, there can only be one mapping
      for any given key (MID, SSRC, or PT).  In other words, the tables
      are not multimaps.

   As "m=" sections are added or removed from the BUNDLE groups, or
   their configurations are changed, the tables above MUST also be
   updated.

   When an RTP packet is received, it MUST be delivered to the RTP
   stream corresponding to its SSRC.  That RTP stream MUST then be
   associated with the correct "m=" section within a BUNDLE group, for
   additional processing, according to the following steps:

   *  If the MID associated with the RTP stream is not in the table
      mapping a MID to an "m=" section, then the RTP stream is not
      decoded and the payload data is discarded.

   *  If the packet has a MID, and the packet's extended sequence number
      is greater than that of the last MID update, as discussed in
      [RFC7941], Section 4.2.2, update the MID associated with the RTP
      stream to match the MID carried in the RTP packet, and then update
      the mapping tables to include an entry that maps the SSRC of that
      RTP stream to the "m=" section for that MID.

   *  If the SSRC of the RTP stream is in the incoming SSRC mapping
      table, check that the payload type used by the RTP stream matches
      a payload type included on the matching "m=" section.  If so,
      associate the RTP stream with that "m=" section.  Otherwise, the
      RTP stream is not decoded and the payload data is discarded.

   *  If the payload type used by the RTP stream is in the payload type
      table, update the incoming SSRC mapping table to include an entry
      that maps the RTP stream's SSRC to the "m=" section for that
      payload type.  Associate the RTP stream with the corresponding
      "m=" section.

   *  Otherwise, mark the RTP stream as "not for decoding" and discard
      the payload.

   If the RTP packet contains one or more Contributing Source (CSRC)
   identifiers, then each CSRC is looked up in the incoming SSRC table,
   and a copy of the RTP packet is associated with the corresponding
   "m=" section for additional processing.

   For each RTCP packet received (including each RTCP packet that is
   part of a compound RTCP packet), the packet is processed as usual by
   the RTP layer, then associated with the appropriate "m=" sections,
   and processed for the RTP streams represented by those "m=" sections.
   This routing is type dependent, as each kind of RTCP packet has its
   own mechanism for associating it with the relevant RTP streams.

   RTCP packets that cannot be associated with an appropriate "m="
   section MUST still be processed as usual by the RTP layer, updating which
   updates the metadata associated with the corresponding RTP streams.
   This situation can occur with certain multiparty RTP topologies or
   when RTCP packets are sent containing a subset of the SDES
   information.

   Additional rules for processing various types of RTCP packets are
   explained below.

   *  If the RTCP packet is of type SDES, for each chunk in the packet
      whose SSRC is found in the incoming SSRC table, deliver a copy of
      the SDES packet to the "m=" section associated with that SSRC.  In
      addition, for any SDES MID items contained in these chunks, if the
      MID is found in the table mapping a MID to an "m=" section, update
      the incoming SSRC table to include an entry that maps the RTP
      stream associated with the chunk's SSRC to the "m=" section
      associated with that MID, unless the packet is older than the
      packet that most recently updated the mapping for this SSRC, as
      discussed in [RFC7941], Section 4.2.6.

   *  Note that if an SDES packet is received as part of a compound RTCP
      packet, the SSRC to "m=" section mapping might not exist until the
      SDES packet is handled (e.g., in the case where RTCP for a source
      is received before any RTP packets).  Therefore, it can be
      beneficial for an implementation to delay RTCP packet routing,
      such that it either prioritizes processing of the SDES item to
      generate or update the mapping or buffers the RTCP information
      that needs to be routed until the SDES item(s) has been processed.
      If the implementation is unable to follow this recommendation, the
      consequence could be that some RTCP information from this
      particular RTCP compound packet is not provided to higher layers.
      The impact from this is likely minor, when this information
      relates to a future incoming RTP stream.

   *  If the RTCP packet is of type BYE, it indicates that the RTP
      streams referenced in the packet are ending.  Therefore, for each
      SSRC indicated in the packet that is found in the incoming SSRC
      table, first deliver a copy of the BYE packet to the "m=" section
      associated with that SSRC, and then remove the entry for that SSRC
      from the incoming SSRC table after an appropriate delay to account
      for "straggler packets", as specified in [RFC3550], Section 6.2.1.

   *  If the RTCP packet is of type Sender Report (SR) or Receiver
      Report (RR), for each report block in the report whose "SSRC of
      source" is found in the outgoing SSRC table, deliver a copy of the
      SR or RR packet to the "m=" section associated with that SSRC.  In
      addition, if the packet is of type SR, and the sender SSRC for the
      packet is found in the incoming SSRC table, deliver a copy of the
      SR packet to the "m=" section associated with that SSRC.

   *  If the implementation supports the RTCP Extended Report (XR) and
      the packet is of type XR, as defined in [RFC3611], for each report
      block in the report whose "SSRC of source" is found in the
      outgoing SSRC table, deliver a copy of the XR packet to the "m="
      section associated with that SSRC.  In addition, if the sender
      SSRC for the packet is found in the incoming SSRC table, deliver a
      copy of the XR packet to the "m=" section associated with that
      SSRC.

   *  If the RTCP packet is a feedback message of type RTPFB (transport-
      layer FB message) or PSFB (payload-specific FB message), as
      defined in [RFC4585], it will contain a media source SSRC, and
      this SSRC is used for routing certain subtypes of feedback
      messages.  However, several subtypes of PSFB and RTPFB messages
      include a target SSRC(s) in a section called Feedback Control
      Information (FCI).  For these messages, the target SSRC(s) is used
      for routing.

   *  If the RTCP packet is a feedback packet that does not include
      target SSRCs in its FCI section, and the media source SSRC is
      found in the outgoing SSRC table, deliver the feedback packet to
      the "m=" section associated with that SSRC.  RTPFB and PSFB types
      that are handled in this way include:

         Generic NACK:  (PT=RTPFB, FMT=1) [RFC4585].

         Picture Loss Indication (PLI):  (PT=PSFB, FMT=1) [RFC4585].

         Slice Loss Indication (SLI):  (PT=PSFB, FMT=2) [RFC4585].

         Reference Picture Selection Indication (RPSI):  (PT=PSFB,
            FMT=3) [RFC4585].

   *  If the RTCP packet is a feedback message that does include a
      target SSRC(s) in its FCI section, it can either be a request or a
      notification.  Requests reference an RTP stream that is being sent
      by the message recipient, whereas notifications are responses to
      an earlier request and therefore reference an RTP stream that is
      being received by the message recipient.

   *  If the RTCP packet is a feedback request that includes a target
      SSRC(s), for each target SSRC that is found in the outgoing SSRC
      table, deliver a copy of the RTCP packet to the "m=" section
      associated with that SSRC.  PSFB and RTPFB types that are handled
      in this way include:

         Full Intra Request (FIR):  (PT=PSFB, FMT=4) [RFC5104].

         Temporal-Spatial Trade-off Request (TSTR):  (PT=PSFB, FMT=5)
            [RFC5104].

         H.271 Video Back Channel Message (VBCM):  (PT=PSFB, FMT=7)
            [RFC5104].

         Temporary Maximum Media Stream Bit Rate Request (TMMBR):
            (PT=RTPFB, FMT=3) [RFC5104].

         Layer Refresh Request (LRR):  (PT=PSFB, FMT=10) [LLR-RTCP].

   *  If the RTCP packet is a feedback notification that includes a
      target SSRC(s), for each target SSRC that is found in the incoming
      SSRC table, deliver a copy of the RTCP packet to the "m=" section
      associated with the RTP stream with a matching SSRC.  PSFB and
      RTPFB types that are handled in this way include:

         Temporal-Spatial Trade-off Notification (TSTN):  (PT=PSFB,
            FMT=6) [RFC5104].  This message is a notification in
            response to a prior TSTR.

         Temporary Maximum Media Stream Bit Rate Notification
         (TMMBN):
            (PT=RTPFB, FMT=4) [RFC5104].  This message is a notification
            in response to a prior TMMBR, but it can also be sent
            unsolicited.

      If the RTCP packet is of type APP, then it is handled in an
      application-specific manner.  If the application does not
      recognize the APP packet, then it MUST be discarded.

9.3.  RTP/RTCP Multiplexing

   Within a BUNDLE group, the offerer and answerer MUST enable RTP/RTCP
   multiplexing [RFC5761] for the RTP-based bundled media (i.e., the
   same transport will be used for both RTP packets and RTCP packets).
   In addition, the offerer and answerer MUST support the SDP 'rtcp-mux-
   only' attribute [RFC8858].

9.3.1.  SDP Offer/Answer Procedures

   This section describes how an offerer and answerer use the SDP 'rtcp-
   mux' [RFC5761] and SDP 'rtcp-mux-only' attributes [RFC8858] to
   negotiate usage of RTP/RTCP multiplexing for RTP-based bundled media.

   RTP/RTCP multiplexing only applies to RTP-based media.  However, as
   described in Section 7.1.3, within an offer or answer the SDP 'rtcp-
   mux' and SDP 'rtcp-mux-only' attributes might be included in a
   bundled "m=" section for non-RTP-based media (if such "m=" section is
   the offerer-tagged "m=" section or answerer-tagged "m=" section).

9.3.1.1.  Generating the Initial SDP BUNDLE Offer

   When an offerer generates an initial BUNDLE offer, if the offer
   contains one or more bundled "m=" sections for RTP-based media (or,
   if there is a chance that "m=" sections for RTP-based media will
   later be added to the BUNDLE group), the offerer MUST include an SDP
   'rtcp-mux' attribute [RFC5761] in each bundled "m=" section
   (excluding any bundle-only "m=" sections).  In addition, the offerer
   MAY include an SDP 'rtcp-mux-only' attribute [RFC8858] in one or more
   bundled "m=" sections for RTP-based media.

   NOTE: Whether the offerer includes the SDP 'rtcp-mux-only' attribute
   depends on whether the offerer supports fallback to usage of a
   separate port for RTCP in case the answerer moves one or more "m="
   sections for RTP-based media out of the BUNDLE group in the answer.

   NOTE: If the offerer includes an SDP 'rtcp-mux' attribute in the
   bundled "m=" sections, but does not include an SDP 'rtcp-mux-only'
   attribute, the offerer can also include an SDP 'rtcp' attribute
   [RFC3605] in one or more RTP-based bundled "m=" sections in order to
   provide a fallback port for RTCP, as described in [RFC5761].
   However, the fallback port will only be applied to "m=" sections for
   RTP-based media that are moved out of the BUNDLE group by the
   answerer.

   In the initial BUNDLE offer, the address:port combination for RTCP
   MUST be unique in each bundled "m=" section for RTP-based media
   (excluding a bundle-only "m=" section), similar to RTP.

9.3.1.2.  Generating the SDP Answer

   When an answerer generates an answer, if the answerer supports RTP-
   based media, and if a bundled "m=" section in the corresponding offer
   contained an SDP 'rtcp-mux' attribute, the answerer MUST enable usage
   of RTP/RTCP multiplexing, even if there currently are no bundled "m="
   sections for RTP-based media within the BUNDLE group.  The answerer
   MUST include an SDP 'rtcp-mux' attribute in the answerer-tagged "m="
   section, following the procedures for BUNDLE attributes
   (Section 7.1.3).  In addition, if the "m=" section that is selected
   as the offerer-tagged "m=" section contained an SDP "rtcp-mux-only" 'rtcp-mux-only'
   attribute, the answerer MUST include an SDP "rtcp-mux-only" 'rtcp-mux-only' attribute
   in the answerer-tagged "m=" section.

   In an initial BUNDLE offer, if the suggested offerer-tagged "m="
   section contained an SDP 'rtcp-mux-only' attribute, the "m=" section
   was for RTP-based media; thus, the answerer does not accept the "m="
   section in the created BUNDLE group, and the answerer MUST move the
   "m=" section out of the BUNDLE group (Section 7.3.2); include the
   attribute in the moved "m=" section and enable RTP/RTCP multiplexing
   for the media associated with the "m=" section; or reject the "m="
   section (Section 7.3.3).

   The answerer MUST NOT include an SDP 'rtcp' attribute in any bundled
   "m=" section in the answer.  The answerer will use the port value of
   the offerer-tagged "m=" section sending RTP and RTCP packets
   associated with RTP-based bundled media towards the offerer.

   If the usage of RTP/RTCP multiplexing within a BUNDLE group has been
   negotiated in a previous offer/answer exchange, the answerer MUST
   include an SDP 'rtcp-mux' attribute in the answerer-tagged "m="
   section.  It is not possible to disable RTP/RTCP multiplexing within
   a BUNDLE group.

9.3.1.3.  Offerer Processing of the SDP Answer

   When an offerer receives an answer, if the answerer has accepted the
   usage of RTP/RTCP multiplexing (Section 9.3.1.2), the answerer
   follows the procedures for RTP/RTCP multiplexing defined in
   [RFC5761].  The offerer will use the port value of the answerer-
   tagged "m=" section for sending RTP and RTCP packets associated with
   RTP-based bundled media towards the answerer.

   NOTE: It is considered a protocol error if the answerer has not
   accepted the usage of RTP/RTCP multiplexing for RTP-based "m="
   sections that the answerer included in the BUNDLE group.

9.3.1.4.  Modifying the Session

   When an offerer generates a subsequent offer, the offerer MUST
   include an SDP 'rtcp-mux' attribute in the offerer-tagged "m="
   section, following the procedures for IDENTICAL multiplexing category
   attributes in Section 7.1.3.

10.  ICE Considerations

   This section describes how to use the BUNDLE grouping extension
   together with the ICE mechanism [RFC8445].

   The generic procedures for negotiating the usage of ICE using SDP,
   defined in [RFC8839], also apply to the usage of ICE with BUNDLE,
   with the following exceptions:

   *  When the BUNDLE transport has been established, ICE connectivity
      checks and keepalives only need to be performed for the BUNDLE
      transport, instead of per individual bundled "m=" section within
      the BUNDLE group.

   *  The generic SDP attribute offer/answer considerations
      (Section 7.1.3) also apply to ICE-related attributes.  Therefore,
      when an offerer sends an initial BUNDLE offer (in order to
      negotiate a BUNDLE group), the offerer includes ICE-related media-
      level attributes in each bundled "m=" section (excluding any
      bundle-only "m=" sections), and each "m=" section MUST contain
      unique ICE properties.  When an answerer generates an answer
      (initial BUNDLE answer or subsequent) that contains a BUNDLE
      group, and when an offerer sends a subsequent offer that contains
      a BUNDLE group, ICE-related media-level attributes are only
      included in the tagged "m=" section (suggested offerer-tagged "m="
      section or answerer-tagged "m=" section), and the ICE properties
      are applied to each bundled "m=" section within the BUNDLE group.

   NOTE: Most ICE-related media-level SDP attributes belong to the
   TRANSPORT multiplexing category [RFC8859], and the generic SDP
   attribute offer/answer considerations for the TRANSPORT multiplexing
   category apply to the attributes.  However, in the case of ICE-
   related attributes, the same considerations also apply to ICE-related
   media-level attributes that belong to other multiplexing categories.

   NOTE: The following ICE-related media-level SDP attributes are
   defined in [RFC8839]: 'candidate', 'remote-candidates', 'ice-
   mismatch', 'ice-ufrag', 'ice-pwd', and 'ice-pacing'.

   Initially, before ICE has produced selected candidate pairs that will
   be used for media, there might be multiple transports established (if
   multiple candidate pairs are tested).  Once ICE has selected
   candidate pairs, they form the BUNDLE transport.

   Support and usage of the ICE mechanism together with the BUNDLE
   extension is OPTIONAL, and the procedures in this section only apply
   when the ICE mechanism is used.  Note that applications might mandate
   usage of the ICE mechanism even if the BUNDLE extension is not used.

   NOTE: If the Trickle ICE mechanism [RFC8840] is used, an offerer and
   answerer might assign a port value of '9' and an IPv4 address of
   '0.0.0.0' (or, the IPv6 equivalent '::') to multiple bundled "m="
   sections in the initial BUNDLE offer.  The offerer and answerer will
   follow the normal procedures for generating the offers and answers,
   including picking a bundled "m=" section as the suggested offerer-
   tagged "m=" section, selecting the tagged "m=" sections, etc.  The
   only difference is that media cannot be sent until one or more
   candidates have been provided.  Once a BUNDLE group has been
   negotiated, trickled candidates associated with a bundled "m="
   section will be applied to all bundled "m=" sections within the
   BUNDLE group.

11.  DTLS Considerations

   One or more media streams within a BUNDLE group might use the
   Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) protocol [RFC6347] in order
   to encrypt the data or negotiate encryption keys if another
   encryption mechanism is used to encrypt media.

   When DTLS is used within a BUNDLE group, the following rules apply:

   *  There can only be one DTLS association [RFC6347] associated with
      the BUNDLE group;

   *  Each usage of the DTLS association within the BUNDLE group MUST
      use the same mechanism for determining which endpoints (the
      offerer or answerer) become DTLS client and DTLS server;

   *  Each usage of the DTLS association within the BUNDLE group MUST
      use the same mechanism for determining whether an offer or answer
      will trigger the establishment of a new DTLS association or an
      existing DTLS association will be used; and

   *  If the DTLS client supports DTLS-SRTP [RFC5764], DTLS-SRTP, it MUST include the
      'use_srtp' extension [RFC5764] in the DTLS ClientHello message [RFC5764].
      The client MUST include the extension even if the usage of DTLS-SRTP DTLS-
      SRTP is not negotiated as part of the multimedia session (e.g.,
      the SIP session [RFC3261]).

   NOTE: The inclusion of the 'use_srtp' extension during the initial
   DTLS handshake ensures that a DTLS renegotiation will not be required
   in order to include the extension, in case DTLS-SRTP encrypted media
   is added to the BUNDLE group later during the multimedia session.

12.  RTP Header Extensions Consideration

   When RTP header extensions [RFC8285] are used in the context of this
   specification, the identifier used for a given extension MUST
   identify the same extension across all the bundled media
   descriptions.

13.  Update to RFC 3264

   This section updates RFC 3264, in order to allow extensions to define
   the usage of a zero port value in offers and answers for purposes
   other than removing or disabling media streams.  The following
   sections are being updated:

   *  "Unicast Streams"; see Section 5.1 of [RFC3264]

   *  "Putting a Unicast Media Stream on Hold"; see Section 8.4 of
      [RFC3264].

13.1.  Original Text from Section 5.1 (2nd Paragraph) of RFC 3264 3264, Section 5.1, 2nd Paragraph

   |  For recvonly and sendrecv streams, the port number and address in
   |  the offer indicate where the offerer would like to receive the
   |  media stream.  For sendonly RTP streams, the address and port
   |  number indirectly indicate where the offerer wants to receive RTCP
   |  reports.  Unless there is an explicit indication otherwise,
   |  reports are sent to the port number one higher than the number
   |  indicated.  The IP address and port present in the offer indicate
   |  nothing about the source IP address and source port of RTP and
   |  RTCP packets that will be sent by the offerer.  A port number of
   |  zero in the offer indicates that the stream is offered but MUST
   |  NOT be used.  This has no useful semantics in an initial offer,
   |  but is allowed for reasons of completeness, since the answer can
   |  contain a zero port indicating a rejected stream (Section 6).
   |  Furthermore, existing streams can be terminated by setting the
   |  port to zero (Section 8).  In general, a port number of zero
   |  indicates that the media stream is not wanted.

13.2.  New Text Replacing Section 5.1 (2nd Paragraph) of RFC 3264 3264, Section 5.1, 2nd Paragraph

   For recvonly and sendrecv streams, the port number and address in the
   offer indicate where the offerer would like to receive the media
   stream.  For sendonly RTP streams, the address and port number
   indirectly indicate where the offerer wants to receive RTCP reports.
   Unless there is an explicit indication otherwise, reports are sent to
   the port number one higher than the number indicated.  The IP address
   and port present in the offer indicate nothing about the source IP
   address and source port of the RTP and RTCP packets that will be sent
   by the offerer.  By default, a port number of zero in the offer
   indicates that the stream is offered but MUST NOT be used, but an
   extension mechanism might specify different semantics for the usage
   of a zero port value.  Furthermore, existing streams can be
   terminated by setting the port to zero (Section 8).  In general, a
   port number of zero by default indicates that the media stream is not
   wanted.

13.3.  Original Text from Section 8.4 (6th Paragraph) of RFC 3264 3264, Section 8.4, 6th Paragraph

   |  RFC 2543 [10] specified that placing a user on hold was
   |  accomplished by setting the connection address to 0.0.0.0.  Its
   |  usage for putting a call on hold is no longer recommended, since
   |  it doesn't allow for RTCP to be used with held streams, doesn't
   |  work with IPv6, and breaks with connection oriented media.
   |  However, it can be useful in an initial offer when the offerer
   |  knows it wants to use a particular set of media streams and
   |  formats, but doesn't know the addresses and ports at the time of
   |  the offer.  Of course, when used, the port number MUST NOT be
   |  zero, which would specify that the stream has been disabled.  An
   |  agent MUST be capable of receiving SDP with a connection address
   |  of 0.0.0.0, in which case it means that neither RTP nor RTCP
   |  should be sent to the peer.

13.4.  New Text Replacing Section 8.4 (6th Paragraph) of RFC 3264 3264, Section 8.4, 6th Paragraph

   RFC 2543 [RFC2543] specifies that placing a user on hold was
   accomplished by setting the connection address to 0.0.0.0.  Its usage
   for putting a call on hold is no longer recommended, since it doesn't
   allow for RTCP to be used with held streams, doesn't work with IPv6,
   and breaks with connection oriented media.  However, it can be useful
   in an initial offer when the offerer knows it wants to use a
   particular set of media streams and formats, but doesn't know the
   addresses and ports at the time of the offer.  Of course, when used,
   the port number MUST NOT be zero, if it would specify that the stream
   has been disabled.  However, an extension mechanism might specify
   different semantics of the zero port number usage.  An agent MUST be
   capable of receiving SDP with a connection address of 0.0.0.0, in
   which case it means that neither RTP nor RTCP is to be sent to the
   peer.

14.  Update to RFC 5888

   This section updates RFC 5888 [RFC5888], in order for extensions to
   allow an SDP 'group' attribute containing an identification-tag that
   identifies an "m=" section with the port set to zero Section 9.2
   (Group zero.  "Group Value
   in Answers) Answers" (Section 9.2 of RFC 5888 [RFC5888]) is updated.

14.1.  Original Text from Section 9.2 (3rd Paragraph) of RFC 5888 5888, Section 9.2, 3rd Paragraph

   |  SIP entities refuse media streams by setting the port to zero in
   |  the corresponding "m" line. "a=group" lines MUST NOT contain
   |  identification-tags that correspond to "m" lines with the port set
   |  to zero.

14.2.  New Text Replacing Section 9.2 (3rd Paragraph) of RFC 5888 5888, Section 9.2, 3rd Paragraph

   SIP entities refuse media streams by setting the port to zero in the
   corresponding "m" line. "a=group" lines MUST NOT contain
   identification-tags that correspond to "m" lines with the port set to
   zero, but an extension mechanism might specify different semantics
   for including identification-tags that correspond to such "m=" lines.

15.  RTP/RTCP Extensions for identification-tag Transport

   SDP Offerers and Answerers [RFC3264] can associate identification-
   tags with "m=" sections within SDP Offers and Answers, using the
   procedures in [RFC5888].  Each identification-tag uniquely represents
   an "m=" section.

   This section defines a new RTCP SDES item [RFC3550], 'MID', which is
   used to carry identification-tags within RTCP SDES packets.  This
   section also defines a new RTP SDES header extension [RFC7941], which
   is used to carry the 'MID' RTCP SDES item in RTP packets.

   The SDES item and RTP SDES header extension make it possible for a
   receiver to associate each RTP stream with a specific "m=" section,
   with which the receiver has associated an identification-tag, even if
   those "m=" sections are part of the same RTP session.  The RTP SDES
   header extension also ensures that the media recipient gets the
   identification-tag upon receipt of the first decodable media and is
   able to associate the media with the correct application.

   A media recipient informs the media sender about the identification-
   tag associated with an "m=" section through the use of an 'mid'
   attribute [RFC5888].  The media sender then inserts the
   identification-tag in RTCP and RTP packets sent to the media
   recipient.

   NOTE: The text above defines how identification-tags are carried in
   SDP Offers and Answers.  The usage of other signaling protocols for
   carrying identification-tags is not prevented, but the usage of such
   protocols is outside the scope of this document.

   [RFC3550] defines general procedures regarding the RTCP transmission
   interval.  The RTCP MID SDES item SHOULD be sent in the first few
   RTCP packets after joining the session and SHOULD be sent regularly
   thereafter.  The exact number of RTCP packets in which this SDES item
   is sent is intentionally not specified here, as it will depend on the
   expected packet-loss rate, the RTCP reporting interval, and the
   allowable overhead.

   The RTP SDES header extension for carrying the 'MID' RTCP SDES SHOULD
   be included in some RTP packets at the start of the session and
   whenever the SSRC changes.  It might also be useful to include the
   header extension in RTP packets that comprise access points in the
   media (e.g., with video I-frames).  The exact number of RTP packets
   in which this header extension is sent is intentionally not specified
   here, as it will depend on expected packet-loss rate and loss
   patterns, the overhead the application can tolerate, and the
   importance of immediate receipt of the identification-tag.

   For robustness, endpoints need to be prepared for situations where
   the reception of the identification-tag is delayed and SHOULD NOT
   terminate sessions in such cases, as the identification-tag is likely
   to arrive soon.

15.1.  RTCP MID SDES Item

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |      MID=15   |     length    | identification-tag          ...
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The identification-tag payload is UTF-8 encoded [RFC3629], as in SDP.

   The identification-tag is not zero terminated.

15.2.  RTP SDES Header Extension For MID

   The payload, containing the identification-tag, of the RTP SDES
   header extension element can be encoded using either the 1-byte or
   the 2-byte header [RFC7941].  The identification-tag payload is UTF-8
   encoded, as in SDP.

   The identification-tag is not zero terminated.  Note that the set of
   header extensions included in the packet needs to be padded to the
   next 32-bit boundary using zero bytes [RFC8285].

   As the identification-tag is included in an RTCP SDES item, an RTP
   SDES header extension, or both, there needs to be some consideration
   about the packet expansion caused by the identification-tag.  To
   avoid Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) issues for the RTP packets, the
   header extension's size needs to be taken into account when encoding
   the media.

   It is recommended that the identification-tag be kept short.  Due to
   the properties of the RTP header extension mechanism, when using the
   1-byte header, a tag that is 1-3 bytes will result in a minimal
   number of 32-bit words used for the RTP SDES header extension, in
   case no other header extensions are included at the same time.  Note,
   do take into account that some single characters when UTF-8 encoded
   will result in multiple octets.  The identification-tag MUST NOT
   contain any user information, and applications SHALL avoid generating
   the identification-tag using a pattern that enables user or
   application identification.

16.  IANA Considerations

16.1.  New SDES Item

   This document adds the MID SDES item to the IANA "RTP SDES Item
   Types" registry as follows:

      Value:  15

      Abbrev.:  MID

      Name:  Media Identification

      Reference:  RFC 8843

16.2.  New RTP SDES Header Extension URI

   This document defines a new extension URI in the RTP SDES Compact
   Header Extensions sub-registry of the RTP Compact Header Extensions
   registry sub-registry, according to the following data:

      Extension URI:  urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:sdes:mid

      Description:  Media identification

      Contact:  IESG (iesg@ietf.org)

      Reference:  RFC 8843

   The SDES item does not reveal privacy information about the users.
   It is simply used to associate RTP-based media with the correct SDP
   media description ("m=" section) in the SDP used to negotiate the
   media.

   The purpose of the extension is for the offerer to be able to
   associate received multiplexed RTP-based media before the offerer
   receives the associated SDP answer.

16.3.  New SDP Attribute

   This document defines a new SDP media-level attribute, 'bundle-only',
   according to the following data:

      Attribute name:  bundle-only

      Type of attribute:  media

      Subject to charset:  No

      Purpose:  Request a media description to be accepted in the answer
         only if kept within a BUNDLE group by the answerer.

      Appropriate values:  N/A

      Contact name:  IESG

      Contact e-mail:  iesg@ietf.org

      Reference:  RFC 8843

      Mux category:  NORMAL

16.4.  New SDP Group Semantics

   This document registers the following semantics with IANA in the
   "Semantics for the "group" SDP Attribute" subregistry (under the
   "Session Description Protocol (SDP) Parameters" registry:

   +----------------+--------+--------------+-----------+
   | Semantics      | Token  | Mux Category | Reference |
   +================+========+==============+===========+
   | Media bundling | BUNDLE | NORMAL       | RFC 8843  |
   +----------------+--------+--------------+-----------+

                          Table 1

17.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations defined in [RFC3264] and [RFC5888] apply
   to the BUNDLE extension.  BUNDLE does not change which information,
   e.g., RTP streams, flows over the network, with the exception of the
   usage of the MID SDES item as discussed below.  Primarily, it changes
   which addresses and ports, and thus in which (RTP) sessions sessions, the
   information is flowing. flows to.  This affects the security contexts being used
   and can cause previously separated information flows to share the
   same security context.  This has very little impact on the
   performance of the security mechanism of the RTP sessions.  In cases
   where one would have applied different security policies on the
   different RTP streams being bundled, or where the parties having
   access to the security contexts would have differed between the RTP
   streams, additional analysis of the implications are needed before
   selecting to apply BUNDLE.

   The identification-tag, independent of transport, RTCP SDES packet,
   or RTP header extension, can expose the value to parties beyond the
   signaling chain.  Therefore, the identification-tag values MUST be
   generated in a fashion that does not leak user information, e.g.,
   randomly or using a per-bundle group counter, and SHOULD be 3 bytes
   or less to allow them to efficiently fit into the MID RTP header
   extension.  Note that if implementations use different methods for
   generating identification-tags, this could enable fingerprinting of
   the implementation making it vulnerable to targeted attacks.  The
   identification-tag is exposed on the RTP stream level when included
   in the RTP header extensions; however, what it reveals of the RTP
   media stream structure of the endpoint and application was already
   possible to deduce from the RTP streams without the MID SDES header
   extensions.  As the identification-tag is also used to route the
   media stream to the right application functionality, it is important
   that the value received is the one intended by the sender; thus,
   integrity and the authenticity of the source are important to prevent
   denial of service on the application.  Existing SRTP configurations
   and other security mechanisms protecting the whole RTP/RTCP packets
   will provide the necessary protection.

   When the BUNDLE extension is used, the set of configurations of the
   security mechanism used in all the bundled media descriptions will
   need to be compatible so that they can be used simultaneously, at
   least per direction or endpoint.  When using SRTP, this will be the
   case, at least for the IETF-defined key-management solutions due to
   their SDP attributes ("a=crypto", "a=fingerprint", "a=mikey") and
   their classification in [RFC8859].

   The security considerations of "RTP Header Extension for the RTP
   Control Protocol (RTCP) Source Description Items" [RFC7941] require
   that when RTCP is confidentiality protected, any SDES RTP header
   extension carrying an SDES item, such as the MID RTP header
   extension, is also protected using commensurate strength algorithms.
   However, assuming the above requirements and recommendations are
   followed, there are no known significant security risks with leaving
   the MID RTP header extension without confidentiality protection.
   Therefore, this specification updates RFC 7941 by adding the
   exception that this requirement MAY be ignored for the MID RTP header
   extension.  Security mechanisms for RTP/RTCP are discussed in
   "Options for Securing RTP Sessions" [RFC7201], for example, SRTP
   [RFC3711] can provide the necessary security functions of ensuring
   the integrity and source authenticity.

18.  Examples

18.1.  Example: Tagged "m=" Section Selections

   The example below shows:

   *  An initial BUNDLE offer, in which the offerer wants to negotiate a
      BUNDLE group and indicates the audio "m=" section as the suggested
      offerer-tagged "m=" section.

   *  An initial BUNDLE answer, in which the answerer accepts the
      creation of the BUNDLE group, selects the audio "m=" section in
      the offer as the offerer-tagged "m=" section, selects the audio
      "m=" section in the answer as the answerer-tagged "m=" section,
      and assigns the answerer BUNDLE address:port to that "m=" section.

   SDP Offer (1)

       v=0
       o=alice 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP6 2001:db8::3
       s=
       c=IN IP6 2001:db8::3
       t=0 0
       a=group:BUNDLE foo bar

       m=audio 10000 RTP/AVP 0 8 97
       b=AS:200
       a=mid:foo
       a=rtcp-mux
       a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
       a=rtpmap:8 PCMA/8000
       a=rtpmap:97 iLBC/8000
       a=extmap:1 urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:sdes:mid

       m=video 10002 RTP/AVP 31 32
       b=AS:1000
       a=mid:bar
       a=rtcp-mux
       a=rtpmap:31 H261/90000
       a=rtpmap:32 MPV/90000
       a=extmap:1 urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:sdes:mid

   SDP Answer (2)

       v=0
       o=bob 2808844564 2808844564 IN IP6 2001:db8::1
       s=
       c=IN IP6 2001:db8::1
       t=0 0
       a=group:BUNDLE foo bar

       m=audio 20000 RTP/AVP 0
       b=AS:200
       a=mid:foo
       a=rtcp-mux
       a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
       a=extmap:1 urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:sdes:mid

       m=video 0 RTP/AVP 32
       b=AS:1000
       a=mid:bar
       a=bundle-only
       a=rtpmap:32 MPV/90000
       a=extmap:1 urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:sdes:mid

18.2.  Example: BUNDLE Group Rejected

   The example below shows:

   *  An initial BUNDLE offer, in which the offerer wants to negotiate a
      BUNDLE group and indicates the audio "m=" section as the suggested
      offerer-tagged "m=" section.

   *  An initial BUNDLE answer, in which the answerer rejects the
      creation of the BUNDLE group, generates a normal answer, and
      assigns a unique address:port to each "m=" section in the answer.

   SDP Offer (1)

       v=0
       o=alice 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP6 2001:db8::3
       s=
       c=IN IP6 2001:db8::3
       t=0 0
       a=group:BUNDLE foo bar

       m=audio 10000 RTP/AVP 0 8 97
       b=AS:200
       a=mid:foo
       a=rtcp-mux
       a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
       a=rtpmap:8 PCMA/8000
       a=rtpmap:97 iLBC/8000
       a=extmap:1 urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:sdes:mid

       m=video 10002 RTP/AVP 31 32
       b=AS:1000
       a=mid:bar
       a=rtcp-mux
       a=rtpmap:31 H261/90000
       a=rtpmap:32 MPV/90000
       a=extmap:1 urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:sdes:mid

   SDP Answer (2)

       v=0
       o=bob 2808844564 2808844564 IN IP6 2001:db8::1
       s=
       c=IN IP6 2001:db8::1
       t=0 0

       m=audio 20000 RTP/AVP 0
       b=AS:200
       a=rtcp-mux
       a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

       m=video 30000 RTP/AVP 32
       b=AS:1000
       a=rtcp-mux
       a=rtpmap:32 MPV/90000

18.3.  Example: Offerer Adds a Media Description to a BUNDLE Group

   The example below shows:

   *  A subsequent offer, in which the offerer adds a new bundled "m="
      section (video), indicated by the "zen" identification-tag, to a
      previously negotiated BUNDLE group; indicates the new "m=" section
      as the offerer-tagged "m=" section; and assigns the offerer BUNDLE
      address:port to that "m=" section.

   *  A subsequent answer, in which the answerer indicates the new video
      "m=" section in the answer as the answerer-tagged "m=" section and
      assigns the answerer BUNDLE address:port to that "m=" section.

   SDP Offer (1)

       v=0
       o=alice 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP6 2001:db8::3
       s=
       c=IN IP6 2001:db8::3
       t=0 0
       a=group:BUNDLE zen foo bar

       m=audio 0 RTP/AVP 0 8 97
       b=AS:200
       a=mid:foo
       a=bundle-only
       a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
       a=rtpmap:8 PCMA/8000
       a=rtpmap:97 iLBC/8000
       a=extmap:1 urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:sdes:mid

       m=video 0 RTP/AVP 31 32
       b=AS:1000
       a=mid:bar
       a=bundle-only
       a=rtpmap:31 H261/90000
       a=rtpmap:32 MPV/90000
       a=extmap:1 urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:sdes:mid

       m=video 10000 RTP/AVP 66
       b=AS:1000
       a=mid:zen
       a=rtcp-mux
       a=rtpmap:66 H261/90000
       a=extmap:1 urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:sdes:mid

   SDP Answer (2)

       v=0
       o=bob 2808844564 2808844564 IN IP6 2001:db8::1
       s=
       c=IN IP6 2001:db8::1
       t=0 0
       a=group:BUNDLE zen foo bar

       m=audio 0 RTP/AVP 0
       b=AS:200
       a=mid:foo
       a=bundle-only
       a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
       a=extmap:1 urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:sdes:mid

       m=video 0 RTP/AVP 32
       b=AS:1000
       a=mid:bar
       a=bundle-only
       a=rtpmap:32 MPV/90000
       a=extmap:1 urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:sdes:mid

       m=video 20000 RTP/AVP 66
       b=AS:1000
       a=mid:zen
       a=rtcp-mux
       a=rtpmap:66 H261/90000
       a=extmap:1 urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:sdes:mid

18.4.  Example: Offerer Moves a Media Description Out of a BUNDLE Group

   The example below shows:

   *  A subsequent offer, in which the offerer removes an "m=" section
      (video), indicated by the "zen" identification-tag, from a
      previously negotiated BUNDLE group; indicates one of the bundled
      "m=" sections (audio) remaining in the BUNDLE group as the
      offerer-tagged "m=" section; and assigns the offerer BUNDLE
      address:port to that "m=" section.

   *  A subsequent answer, in which the answerer removes the "m="
      section from the BUNDLE group, indicates the audio "m=" section in
      the answer as the answerer-tagged "m=" section, and assigns the
      answerer BUNDLE address:port to that "m=" section.

   SDP Offer (1)

       v=0
       o=alice 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP6 2001:db8::3
       s=
       c=IN IP6 2001:db8::3
       t=0 0
       a=group:BUNDLE foo bar

       m=audio 10000 RTP/AVP 0 8 97
       b=AS:200
       a=mid:foo
       a=rtcp-mux
       a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
       a=rtpmap:8 PCMA/8000
       a=rtpmap:97 iLBC/8000
       a=extmap:1 urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:sdes:mid

       m=video 0 RTP/AVP 31 32
       b=AS:1000
       a=mid:bar
       a=bundle-only
       a=rtpmap:31 H261/90000
       a=rtpmap:32 MPV/90000
       a=extmap:1 urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:sdes:mid

       m=video 50000 RTP/AVP 66
       b=AS:1000
       a=mid:zen
       a=rtcp-mux
       a=rtpmap:66 H261/90000

   SDP Answer (2)

       v=0
       o=bob 2808844564 2808844564 IN IP6 2001:db8::1
       s=
       c=IN IP6 2001:db8::1
       t=0 0
       a=group:BUNDLE foo bar

       m=audio 20000 RTP/AVP 0
       b=AS:200
       a=mid:foo
       a=rtcp-mux
       a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
       a=extmap:1 urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:sdes:mid

       m=video 0 RTP/AVP 32
       b=AS:1000
       a=mid:bar
       a=bundle-only
       a=rtpmap:32 MPV/90000
       a=extmap:1 urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:sdes:mid

       m=video 60000 RTP/AVP 66
       b=AS:1000
       a=mid:zen
       a=rtcp-mux
       a=rtpmap:66 H261/90000

18.5.  Example: Offerer Disables a Media Description within a BUNDLE
       Group

   The example below shows:

   *  A subsequent offer, in which the offerer disables (by assigning a
      zero port value) an "m=" section (video), indicated by the "zen"
      identification-tag, from a previously negotiated BUNDLE group;
      indicates one of the bundled "m=" sections (audio) remaining
      active in the BUNDLE group as the offerer-tagged "m=" section; and
      assigns the offerer BUNDLE address:port to that "m=" section.

   *  A subsequent answer, in which the answerer disables the "m="
      section, indicates the audio "m=" section in the answer as the
      answerer-tagged "m=" section, and assigns the answerer BUNDLE
      address:port to that "m=" section.

   SDP Offer (1)

       v=0
       o=alice 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP6 2001:db8::3
       s=
       t=0 0
       a=group:BUNDLE foo bar

       m=audio 10000 RTP/AVP 0 8 97
       c=IN IP6 2001:db8::3
       b=AS:200
       a=mid:foo
       a=rtcp-mux
       a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
       a=rtpmap:8 PCMA/8000
       a=rtpmap:97 iLBC/8000
       a=extmap:1 urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:sdes:mid

       m=video 0 RTP/AVP 31 32
       c=IN IP6 2001:db8::3
       b=AS:1000
       a=mid:bar
       a=bundle-only
       a=rtpmap:31 H261/90000
       a=rtpmap:32 MPV/90000
       a=extmap:1 urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:sdes:mid

       m=video 0 RTP/AVP 66
       a=mid:zen
       a=rtpmap:66 H261/90000

   SDP Answer (2)

       v=0
       o=bob 2808844564 2808844564 IN IP6 2001:db8::1
       s=
       t=0 0
       a=group:BUNDLE foo bar

       m=audio 20000 RTP/AVP 0
       c=IN IP6 2001:db8::1
       b=AS:200
       a=mid:foo
       a=rtcp-mux
       a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
       a=extmap:1 urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:sdes:mid

       m=video 0 RTP/AVP 32
       c=IN IP6 2001:db8::1
       b=AS:1000
       a=mid:bar
       a=bundle-only
       a=rtpmap:32 MPV/90000
       a=extmap:1 urn:ietf:params:rtp-hdrext:sdes:mid

       m=video 0 RTP/AVP 66
       a=mid:zen
       a=rtpmap:66 H261/90000

19.  References

19.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC3264]  Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "An Offer/Answer Model
              with Session Description Protocol (SDP)", RFC 3264,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3264, June 2002,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3264>.

   [RFC3550]  Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., and V.
              Jacobson, "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time
              Applications", STD 64, RFC 3550, DOI 10.17487/RFC3550,
              July 2003, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3550>.

   [RFC3605]  Huitema, C., "Real Time Control Protocol (RTCP) attribute
              in Session Description Protocol (SDP)", RFC 3605,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3605, October 2003,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3605>.

   [RFC3629]  Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
              10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, DOI 10.17487/RFC3629, November
              2003, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3629>.

   [RFC3711]  Baugher, M., McGrew, D., Naslund, M., Carrara, E., and K.
              Norrman, "The Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP)",
              RFC 3711, DOI 10.17487/RFC3711, March 2004,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3711>.

   [RFC4566]  Handley, M., Jacobson, V., and C. Perkins, "SDP: Session
              Description Protocol", RFC 4566, DOI 10.17487/RFC4566,
              July 2006, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4566>.

   [RFC4961]  Wing, D., "Symmetric RTP / RTP Control Protocol (RTCP)",
              BCP 131, RFC 4961, DOI 10.17487/RFC4961, July 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4961>.

   [RFC5761]  Perkins, C. and M. Westerlund, "Multiplexing RTP Data and
              Control Packets on a Single Port", RFC 5761,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5761, April 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5761>.

   [RFC5764]  McGrew, D. and E. Rescorla, "Datagram Transport Layer
              Security (DTLS) Extension to Establish Keys for the Secure
              Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP)", RFC 5764,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5764, May 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5764>.

   [RFC5888]  Camarillo, G. and H. Schulzrinne, "The Session Description
              Protocol (SDP) Grouping Framework", RFC 5888,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5888, June 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5888>.

   [RFC6347]  Rescorla, E. and N. Modadugu, "Datagram Transport Layer
              Security Version 1.2", RFC 6347, DOI 10.17487/RFC6347,
              January 2012, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6347>.

   [RFC7941]  Westerlund, M., Burman, B., Even, R., and M. Zanaty, "RTP
              Header Extension for the RTP Control Protocol (RTCP)
              Source Description Items", RFC 7941, DOI 10.17487/RFC7941,
              August 2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7941>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8285]  Singer, D., Desineni, H., and R. Even, Ed., "A General
              Mechanism for RTP Header Extensions", RFC 8285,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8285, October 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8285>.

   [RFC8445]  Keranen, A., Holmberg, C., and J. Rosenberg, "Interactive
              Connectivity Establishment (ICE): A Protocol for Network
              Address Translator (NAT) Traversal", RFC 8445,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8445, July 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8445>.

   [RFC8859]  Nandakumar, S., "A Framework for SDP Attributes When
              Multiplexing", DOI 10.17487/RFC8859, RFC 8859, May 2020,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8859>.

   [RFC8858]  Holmberg, C., "Indicating Exclusive Support of RTP/RTCP
              Multiplexing using SDP", RFC 8858, DOI 10.17487/RFC8858,
              May 2020, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8858>.

   [RFC8839]  Petit-Huguenin, M., Nandakumar, S., Holmberg, C., Keränen,
              A., and R. Shpount, "Session Description Protocol (SDP)
              Offer/Answer Procedures for Interactive Connectivity
              Establishment (ICE)", RFC 8839, DOI 10.17487/RFC8839, May
              2020, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8839>.

   [RFC8840]  Ivov, E., Stach, T., Marocco, E., and C. Holmberg, "A
              Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Usage for Incremental
              Provisioning of Candidates for the Interactive
              Connectivity Establishment (Trickle ICE)", RFC 8840,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8840, May 2020,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8840>.

   [RFC8858]  Holmberg, C., "Indicating Exclusive Support of RTP/RTCP
              Multiplexing using SDP", RFC 8858, DOI 10.17487/RFC8858,
              May 2020, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8858>.

   [RFC8859]  Nandakumar, S., "A Framework for SDP Attributes When
              Multiplexing", DOI 10.17487/RFC8859, RFC 8859, May 2020,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8859>.

19.2.  Informative References

   [LLR-RTCP] Lennox, J., Hong, D., Uberti, J., Holmer, S., and M.
              Flodman, "The Layer Refresh Request (LRR) RTCP Feedback
              Message", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-
              avtext-lrr-07, 2 July 2017,
              <https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-avtext-lrr-07>.

   [RFC2543]  Handley, M., Schulzrinne, H., Schooler, E., and J.
              Rosenberg, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 2543,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2543, March 1999,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2543>.

   [RFC3261]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
              A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
              Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3261, June 2002,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3261>.

   [RFC3611]  Friedman, T., Ed., Caceres, R., Ed., and A. Clark, Ed.,
              "RTP Control Protocol Extended Reports (RTCP XR)",
              RFC 3611, DOI 10.17487/RFC3611, November 2003,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3611>.

   [RFC5104]  Wenger, S., Chandra, U., Westerlund, M., and B. Burman,
              "Codec Control Messages in the RTP Audio-Visual Profile
              with Feedback (AVPF)", RFC 5104, DOI 10.17487/RFC5104,
              February 2008, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5104>.

   [RFC4585]  Ott, J., Wenger, S., Sato, N., Burmeister, C., and J. Rey,
              "Extended RTP Profile for Real-time Transport Control
              Protocol (RTCP)-Based Feedback (RTP/AVPF)", RFC 4585,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4585, July 2006,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4585>.

   [RFC5104]  Wenger, S., Chandra, U., Westerlund, M., and B. Burman,
              "Codec Control Messages in the RTP Audio-Visual Profile
              with Feedback (AVPF)", RFC 5104, DOI 10.17487/RFC5104,
              February 2008, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5104>.

   [RFC5576]  Lennox, J., Ott, J., and T. Schierl, "Source-Specific
              Media Attributes in the Session Description Protocol
              (SDP)", RFC 5576, DOI 10.17487/RFC5576, June 2009,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5576>.

   [RFC7160]  Petit-Huguenin, M. and G. Zorn, Ed., "Support for Multiple
              Clock Rates in an RTP Session", RFC 7160,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7160, April 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7160>.

   [RFC7201]  Westerlund, M. and C. Perkins, "Options for Securing RTP
              Sessions", RFC 7201, DOI 10.17487/RFC7201, April 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7201>.

   [RFC7656]  Lennox, J., Gross, K., Nandakumar, S., Salgueiro, G., and
              B. Burman, Ed., "A Taxonomy of Semantics and Mechanisms
              for Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) Sources", RFC 7656,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7656, November 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7656>.

   [RFC7657]  Black, D., Ed. and P. Jones, "Differentiated Services
              (Diffserv) and Real-Time Communication", RFC 7657,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7657, November 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7657>.

   [RFC8838]  Ivov, E., Rescorla, E., Uberti, J., and P. Saint-Andre,
              "Trickle ICE: Incremental Provisioning of Candidates for
              the Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE)
              Protocol", RFC 8838, DOI 10.17487/RFC8838, May 2020,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8838>.

   [LLR-RTCP] Lennox, J., Hong, D., Uberti, J., Holmer, S., and M.
              Flodman, "The Layer Refresh Request (LRR) RTCP Feedback
              Message", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-
              avtext-lrr-07, 2 July 2017,
              <https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-avtext-lrr-07>.

Appendix A.  Design Considerations

   One of the main issues regarding the BUNDLE grouping extensions has
   been whether, in SDP Offers and SDP Answers, the same port value can
   be inserted in "m=" lines associated with a BUNDLE group, as the
   purpose of the extension is to negotiate the usage of a single
   transport for media specified by the "m=" sections.  Issues with both
   approaches, discussed in the Appendix, have been raised.  The outcome
   was to specify a mechanism that uses SDP Offers with both different
   and identical port values.

   Below are the primary issues that have been considered when defining
   the "BUNDLE" grouping extension:

   1)  Interoperability with existing User Agents (UAs).

   2)  Interoperability with intermediary Back-to-Back User Agent
       (B2BUA) and proxy entities.

   3)  Time to gather, and the number of, ICE candidates.

   4)  Different error scenarios and when they occur.

   5)  SDP Offer/Answer impacts, including usage of port number value
       zero.

A.1.  UA Interoperability

   Consider the following SDP Offer/Answer exchange, where Alice sends
   an SDP Offer to Bob:

   SDP Offer

       v=0
       o=alice 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 atlanta.example.com
       s=
       c=IN IP4 atlanta.example.com
       t=0 0

       m=audio 10000 RTP/AVP 97
       a=rtpmap:97 iLBC/8000
       m=video 10002 RTP/AVP 97
       a=rtpmap:97 H261/90000

   SDP Answer

       v=0
       o=bob 2808844564 2808844564 IN IP4 biloxi.example.com
       s=
       c=IN IP4 biloxi.example.com
       t=0 0

       m=audio 20000 RTP/AVP 97
       a=rtpmap:97 iLBC/8000
       m=video 20002 RTP/AVP 97
       a=rtpmap:97 H261/90000

   RFC 4961 specifies a way of doing symmetric RTP, but that is a later
   extension to RTP, and Bob cannot assume that Alice supports RFC 4961.
   This means that Alice may be sending RTP from a different port than
   10000 or 10002 -- some implementations simply send the RTP from an
   ephemeral port.  When Bob's endpoint receives an RTP packet, the only
   way that Bob knows if the packet is to be passed to the video or
   audio codec is by looking at the port it was received on.  This led
   prompted some SDP implementations to use the fact that each "m=" section had a
   different port number to use that port number as an index to
   find the correct "m=" line in the SDP. SDP, since each "m"= section
   contains a different port number.  As a result, some implementations
   that do support symmetric RTP and ICE still use an SDP data structure
   where SDP with "m=" sections with the same port such as:

   SDP Offer

       v=0
       o=alice 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 atlanta.example.com
       s=
       c=IN IP4 atlanta.example.com
       t=0 0

       m=audio 10000 RTP/AVP 97
       a=rtpmap:97 iLBC/8000
       m=video 10000 RTP/AVP 98
       a=rtpmap:98 H261/90000

   will result in the second "m=" section being considered an SDP error
   because it has the same port as the first line.

A.2.  Usage of Port Number Value Zero

   In an SDP Offer or SDP Answer, the media specified by an "m=" section
   can be disabled/rejected by setting the port number value to zero.
   This is different from, e.g., using the SDP direction attributes,
   where RTCP traffic will continue even if the SDP "inactive" 'inactive' attribute
   is indicated for the associated "m=" section.

   If each "m=" section associated with a BUNDLE group would contain
   different port values, and one of those port values would be used for
   a BUNDLE address:port associated with the BUNDLE group, problems
   would occur if an endpoint wants to disable/reject the "m=" section
   associated with that port, by setting the port value to zero.  After
   that, no "m=" section would contain the port value that is used for
   the BUNDLE address:port.  In addition, it is unclear what would
   happen to the ICE candidates associated with the "m=" section, as
   they are also used for the BUNDLE address:port.

A.3.  B2BUA and Proxy Interoperability

   Some back-to-back user agents may be configured in a mode where if
   the incoming call leg contains an SDP attribute the B2BUA does not
   understand, the B2BUA still generates that SDP attribute in the Offer
   for the outgoing call leg.  Consider a B2BUA that did not understand
   the SDP "rtcp" 'rtcp' attribute, defined in RFC 3605, yet acted this way.
   Further assume that the B2BUA was configured to tear down any call
   where it did not see any RTCP for 5 minutes.  In this case, if the
   B2BUA received an Offer like:

   SDP Offer

       v=0
       o=alice 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 atlanta.example.com
       s=
       c=IN IP4 atlanta.example.com
       t=0 0

       m=audio 49170 RTP/AVP 0
       a=rtcp:53020

   It would be looking for RTCP on port 49171 but would not see any
   because the RTCP would be on port 53020, and after five minutes, it
   would tear down the call.  Similarly, a B2BUA that did not understand
   BUNDLE yet put it in its offer may be looking for media on the wrong
   port and tear down the call.  It is worth noting that a B2BUA that
   generated an Offer with capabilities it does not understand is not
   compliant with the specifications.

A.3.1.  Traffic Policing

   Sometimes intermediaries do not act as B2BUAs, in the sense that they
   don't modify SDP bodies nor do they terminate SIP dialogs.  However,
   they may still use SDP information (e.g., IP address and port) in
   order to control traffic gating functions and to set traffic policing
   rules.  There might be rules that will trigger a session to be
   terminated in case media is not sent or received on the ports
   retrieved from the SDP.  This typically occurs once the session is
   already established and ongoing.

A.3.2.  Bandwidth Allocation

   Sometimes, intermediaries do not act as B2BUAs, in the sense that
   they don't modify SDP bodies nor do they terminate SIP dialogs.
   However, they may still use SDP information (e.g., codecs and media
   types) in order to control bandwidth allocation functions.  The
   bandwidth allocation is done per "m=" section, which means that it
   might not be enough if media specified by all "m=" sections try to
   use that bandwidth.  That may simply lead to either bad user
   experience or termination of the call.

A.4.  Candidate Gathering

   When using ICE, a candidate needs to be gathered for each port.  This
   takes approximately 20 ms extra for each extra "m=" section due to
   the NAT pacing requirements.  All of this gathering can be overlapped
   with other things while, e.g., a web page is loading to minimize the
   impact.  If the client only wants to generate Traversal Using Relays
   around NAT (TURN) or STUN ICE candidates for one of the "m=" lines
   and then use Trickle ICE [RFC8838] to get the non-host ICE candidates
   for the rest of the "m=" sections, it MAY do that and will not need
   any additional gathering time.

   Some people have suggested a TURN extension to get a bunch of TURN
   allocations at once.  This would only provide a single STUN result,
   so in cases where the other end did not support BUNDLE, it may cause
   more use of the TURN server, but it would be quick in the cases where
   both sides supported BUNDLE and would fall back to a successful call
   in the other cases.

Acknowledgements

   The usage of the SDP grouping extension for negotiating bundled media
   is based on similar alternatives proposed by Harald Alvestrand and
   Cullen Jennings.  The BUNDLE extension described in this document is
   based on the different alternative proposals, and text (e.g., SDP
   examples) has been borrowed (and, in some cases, modified) from those
   alternative proposals.

   The SDP examples are also modified versions from the ones in the
   Alvestrand proposal.

   Thanks to Paul Kyzivat, Martin Thomson, Flemming Andreasen, Thomas
   Stach, Ari Keränen, Adam Roach, Christian Groves, Roman Shpount,
   Suhas Nandakumar, Nils Ohlmeier, Jens Guballa, Raju Makaraju, Justin
   Uberti, Taylor Brandstetter, Byron Campen, and Eric Rescorla for
   reading the text and providing useful feedback.

   Thanks to Bernard Aboba, Peter Thatcher, Justin Uberti, and Magnus
   Westerlund for providing the text for the section on RTP/RTCP stream
   association.

   Thanks to Magnus Westerlund, Colin Perkins, and Jonathan Lennox for
   providing help and text on the RTP/RTCP procedures.

   Thanks to Charlie Kaufman for performing the Sec-Dir review.

   Thanks to Linda Dunbar for performing the Gen-ART review.

   Thanks to Spotify for providing music for the countless hours of
   document editing.

Authors' Addresses

   Christer Holmberg
   Ericsson
   Hirsalantie 11
   FI-02420 Jorvas
   Finland

   Email: christer.holmberg@ericsson.com

   Harald Tveit Alvestrand
   Google
   Kungsbron 2
   SE-11122 Stockholm
   Sweden

   Email: harald@alvestrand.no

   Cullen Jennings
   Cisco
   400 3rd Avenue SW, Suite 350
   Calgary AB T2P 4H2
   Canada

   Email: fluffy@iii.ca