Internet-Draft DRO Recommendations May 2022
Migault & York Expires 14 November 2022 [Page]
Intended Status:
D. Migault
D. York

Recommendations for DNSSEC Resolvers Operators


The DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC) define a process for validating received data and assert them authentic and complete as opposed to forged.

This document clarifies the scope and responsibilities of DNSSEC Resolver Operators (DRO) as well as operational recommendations that DNSSEC validators operators SHOULD put in place in order to implement sufficient trust that makes DNSSEC validation output accurate. The recommendations described in this document include, provisioning mechanisms as well as monitoring and management mechanisms.

Status of This Memo

This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-Drafts is at

Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

This Internet-Draft will expire on 14 November 2022.

Table of Contents

1. Requirements Notation

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all capitals, as shown here.

2. Introduction

The purpose of DNSSEC Resolver Operator (DRO) is to enable DNSSEC validation in their resolvers.

By validating with DNSSEC a received Resource Record Set (RRset), the resolver provides a high level of confidentiality that the information carried by the RRset is effectively the one published by the legitimate owner of the RRset. The act of DNSSEC validation [RFC4033][RFC4035] can be broken into two part: A Signature Validation which binds the RRset to a private key as well as Trust in the owner of the private being the legitimate owner.

Signature Validation consists in checking the cryptographic signature of a RRset and involves among other parameters a DNSKEY Resource Record (RR) and RRSIG RR and the RRset itself. The signature validation process results in designating the owner of RRset as the owner of the corresponding private part of the public key contained in the DNSKEY RR. Cryptography provides a high level of confidence in the binding to the private key. In that sense, a rogue RRset likely results from the private key being exposed or guessed - as opposed to signature or key collisions for example. As such differ the confidence into the Trust to designate which DNSKEY RR is legitimate.

Trust implicitly assumes the private keys used to signed are not shared and as such can be associated their respective owners. The purpose of Trust is to put significant confidence into designating the legitimate DNSKEY RR - which also characterizes the corresponding private key. Such trust is provided by a Trust Anchor (TA), and the chain of trust established between the TA and the DNSKEY RR. The chain of trust is obtained by recursively validating the DNSKEY RRs.

As a result, such trust results from the trust placed in the TA as well as the delegation mechanism provided by DNSSEC and the Signature Validation. As TAs need to be managed over time, the trust also concerns the management procedure of the TA. This is the main concern of this document.

Data's authenticity and integrity is tied to the operator of the key that generates the signature. It is conceivable that a validator could "know" the keys of each data source, but this is not practical at large scale. To counter this, DNSSEC relied on securely chaining keys in a manner isomorphic to the way names are delegated. Keys for a name will "vouch for" keys at a name delegated via the signing of a DS resource record set.

Using keys to vouch for keys, recursively, works when a manageable set of key to name associations are determined to be "trusted" - and are called trust anchors. In DNSSEC, a validator needs one or more Trust Anchors from which to grow chains of verified keys.

With operational experience, a twist has emerged. More often, to date, failed validation is due to operator error or software bug [ENT] and not an attempt to forge data. In general badly signed RRsets or zone badly delegated are out of scope of the DRO's responsibility. However, the DRO may reflect this operational error with a temporary solution designated as Negative Trust Anchors (NTA) [RFC7646]. A NTA instructs a validator to ignore the presence of keys for a name, reacting as if the name is unsigned.

Once accurately validated the RRset is assumed to be accurately validated and trusted during the time indicated by its TTL.

The responsibilities of a DRO are limited to the management of TAs as well as providing the necessary infrastructure to perform the signature validation, e.g. appropriated libraries and time. More specifically, badly signed zones or insertion of malicious DNSKEY fall out of the DRO's responsibilities. Even though these threats fall out of these responsibilities, a DRO may collaborate with authoritative servers to limit the damage of their operational errors.

This document is focused on operational recommendations that DRO SHOULD put in place in order to implement sufficient trust that makes DNSSEC validation output accurate. The recommendations described in this document include, provisioning mechanisms as well as monitoring and management mechanisms.

The mechanisms provided are designed in accordance of the DNSSEC trust model as to meet the current operations of DNSSEC. Such trust model is briefly recapped in Section 4 so operators understand the limits and motivations for such mechanisms.

3. Terminology

This document uses the following terminology:

DNSSEC validator
the entity that performs DNSSEC resolution and performs signature validation.
Accurate validation
validation that avoids false positives and catches true negatives.
Trust Anchor Data Store
a module (of code) implementing functions related to the trust anchors used by the validator. This is essentially a database allowing access, monitoring of, and changes to trust anchors.
DNSSEC Resolver Operator (DRO)
The operator providing DNSSEC validation service and managing DNSSEC validators

4. DNSSEC Validator Description

This is a conceptual block diagram of the elements involved with DNSSEC validation. This is not meant to be an architecture for code, this is meant to be a framework for discussion and explanation.

    +-------------+  +---------------+
    |             |  |               |
    | Time Source |  | Cryptographic |
    |             |  |   Libraries   |
    |             |  |               |
    +-------------+  +---------------+
           |                 |
           v                 v
    +--------------------------------+   +--------------+
    |                                |   |              |
    |                                |<--| Trust Anchor |
    |    DNSSEC Validation Engine    |   |   Manager &  |
    |                                |-->|   Storage    |
    |                                |   |              |
    +--------------------------------+   +--------------+
          ^ |               ^                   |
          | v               |                   |
    +-------------+  +---------------+          |
    |             |  |               |          |
    | DNS Caches  |  | DNS Messages  |<---------+
    |             |  |               |
    +-------------+  +---------------+

{ title="DNSSEC Validator Description" }

Time Source
The wall clock time provides the DNSSEC Validation Engine the current time. Time is among other used to validate the RRSIG Signature and Inception Fields to provide some protection against replay attacks.
Cryptograhic Libraries
The code performing mathematical functions provides the DNSSEC Validation Engine the ability to check the Signature Field that contains the cryptographic signature covering the RRSIG RDATA.
DNS Message
DNS responses are used to carry the information from the DNS system. The receiver of the DNS message can be any kind of application including DNS-related application such as in the case of automated Trust Anchor update performed by the Trust Anchor Manager & Storage. The DNSSEC Validator Engine accurately validates the DNS responses before caching them in the DNS Cache and forwarding them to the DNS receiver. In case of validation failure, an error is returned and the information may be negatively cached.
DNS Caches
Include positive and negative caches. The DNSSEC Validation Engine fills DNS Caches with the results of a validation (positive data, negative failures). The DNSSEC trust model considers that once a RRset has been accurately validated by the DNSSEC Validator Engine, the RRset is considered trusted (or untrusted) for its associated TTL. DNS Caches contain RRsets that may contain information requested by the application (RRset of type AAAA for example) as well as RRset necessary to accurately validate the RRsets (RRsets of type DNSKEY or RRSIG for example). It also worth noticing that RRset validated with DNSSEC or RRset that are not validated with DNSSEC fill the DNS Cache with the same level of trust.
Trust Anchor Manager

The database of trust anchors associated to database management processes. This function provides the DNSSEC Validation Engine Trust Anchor information when needed. When TA needs to be updated, the Trust Anchor Manager is also responsible to handle the updating procedure. This includes sending DNS Messages as well as treating appropriately the DNS responses that have been accurately validated by the DNSSEC Validator Engine.

This will require the DNSSEC Validator to update Trust Anchor information, whether via methods like Automated Updates of DNSSEC Trust Anchors [RFC5011], management of Negative Trust Anchors, or other, possibly not yet defined, means.

DNSSEC Validation Engine
follows local policy to approve data. The approved data is returned to the requesting application as well as in the DNS Caches. While the cryptographic computation of the RRSIG signature may be the most visible step, the RRSIG record also contains other information intended to help the validator perform its work, in some cases "sane value" checks are performed. For instance, the original TTL (needed to prepare the RR set for validation) ought to be equal to or higher than the received TTL.

Not shown - Name Server Process Management interfaces to elements, handling of Checking Disabled request, responses, as well as all API requests made of the name server.

5. Recommendations Categories

DRO needs to be able to enable DNSSEC validation with sufficient confidence they will not be held responsible in case their resolver does not validate the DNSSEC response. The minimization of these risks is provided by setting automated procedures, when a resolver is started or while it is operating, as well as some on-demand operations that enable the DRO to perform a specific operation. The recommendations do not come with the same level of requirements and some are likely to be required. Other are optional and may be followed by more advanced DROs.

The recommendations are voluntary restrictive to prevent side effects of interventions that will be hard to predict, debug and understand.

The RECOMMENDATIONS in this document are subdivided into the following categories:

Start-up recommendations
which describes RECOMMENDED operations the DRO is expected to perform when the resolver is started. These operations typically includes health check of the infrastructure the resolver is instantiated on as well as configuration check.
Run time recommendations
which describes RECOMMENDED operations the DRO is expected to perform on its running resolvers. These operations typically include health checks of the infrastructure as well as the resolvers.
On demand recommendations
which describes the RECOMMENDED operations a DRO may perform. This includes the ability to operate health check at a given time as well as specific operations such as flushing the cache. The reason the document mentions these recommendations is to enable DROs to have the appropriates tools as well as to restrict their potential interventions.

6. Time deviation and absence of Real Time Clock Recommendations

With M2M communication some devices are not expected to embed Real Time Clock (Raspberry Pi is one example of such devices). When these devices are re-plugged the initial time is set to January 1 1970. Other devices that have clocks that may suffer from time deviation. These devices cannot rely on their time estimation to perform DNSSEC validation.

Time synchronization may be performed manually, but for the sake of operations it is strongly RECOMMENDED to automate the time synchronization on each resolver.


Note that updating time in order to be able to perform DNSSEC validation may become a form of a chicken-and-egg problem when the NTP server is designated by its FQDN. The update mechanisms must consider the DNSSEC validator may not able to validate the DNSSEC queries. In other words, the mechanisms may have to update the time over an unsecure DNSSEC resolution.



Note that time synchronization is a sensible operation and DRO MUST update the time of the systems over an authenticated and secure channel.

For all recommendations, it is strongly RECOMMENDED that recommendations are supported by automated processes.

A TA store maintains associations between domain names and keys (whether stored as in a DNSKEY resource record or a DS resource record) and domain names whose key are to be ignored (negative trust anchors). The TA store is essentially a database, storing the (positive) trust anchors. Management of the TA can be done manually or in an automated way. Automatic management of the TA is RECOMMENDED and can be subdivided into the following sub-categories:

  1. Initial TA provisioning
    that is the ability, for a DRO, to ensure a starting resolver is automatically provisioned with an up-to-date configuration. This includes the TA associated to the trust model established by the DRO.
  2. TA update over time
    while the trust model may not evolve, the cryptographic keys associated to the security entry points are subject to change and thus TA needs to be updated over time. A DRO needs to check TA updates properly.
  3. TA reporting
    The reporting of the TA used by the resolver is made to the DRO as well as the authoritative servers which are hold responsible for making their zone validated by DNSSEC resolvers.

This section is only considering TA and not NTA. The handling of NTA is detailed in Section 8.

7.1. Trust Anchor Configuration

When a DRO starts a DNSSEC resolver, the DNSSEC resolver is provisioned with the TAs as part of its configuration. As these TAs change over time, the DRO MUST ensures resolvers are always provisioned with up-to-date TAs and detect deprecated configuration.

To do so, the TA configuration is considered as a trusted model instantiated as follows:

  1. Trust model definition :The DRO defines the domain names that constitutes security entry point (TA) - see Section 7.1.1 for more details.
  2. Trust model bootstrapping
    A bootstrapping procedure is applied to each TA to retrieve their TA values - that is the corresponding value of the key - in a trusted way. Such TA MAY have a specific format not understood by the resolver - see Section 7.1.2 for more details.
  3. DNSSEC resolver configuration generation
    The TA with associated values are formatted appropriately for the DNSSEC resolver that will be instantiated. In many cases the appropriated format is the DNS RRset format - see Section 7.1.3 for more details.
  4. DNSSEC resolver instantiation
    The DNSSEC resolver is started, performs some checks before becoming operational, that is checking comp ability between provisioned TAs and those found online. These checks are implemented by the resolver and not really in scope of the DRO - see Section 7.1.4 for more details.

While these steps may require some some specific development for complex trust model, no additional deployment is required when using the default model where the root zone is defined as the only secure entry point. In such case, the trusted model bootstrapping is performed by software-update that relies on the code signing key of the software provider. The software provider also provides the configuration to the appropriated format and the checks at instantiation - see Section

7.1.1. Definition of the Trust model

The DRO defines its trust model by explicitly mentioning the domain name that constitutes security entry point as well as domain name that are known to be unsecured.

This document does not provide recommendations regarding the number of TA a DRO needs to configure its DNSSEC resolver with. There are many reasons a DRO may be willing to consider multiple TAs as opposed to a single Root Zone Trust Anchor. In fact it is not always possible to build a trusted delegation between the Root Zone and any sub zone. This may happen, for example, if one of the upper zones does not handle the secure delegation or improperly implement it. Typically, a DS RRset may not be properly filled or its associated signature cannot be validated. As the chain of trust between a zone and the root zone may not be validated, the DNSSEC validation for the zone requires a TA. Such DNS(SEC) resolutions may be critical for infrastructure management. A company "Example" may, for example, address all its devices under the domain and may not want disruption to happen if the .com delegation cannot be validated for any reasons. Such companies may operate DNSSEC with a TA for the zone in addition to the regular DNSSEC delegation. Similarly some domains may present different views such as a "private" view and a "public view". These zones may have some different content, and may use a different KSK for each view.

The domain name chosen as security entry point may overlap themselves such as and .com for example. The TA associated to a domain name is determined by the longest match. However, the trust model MUST at least ensure that any domain name in the DNS be related to a TA. As the number of top level domains is evolving overtime, it remains safe to keep the root zone as a security entry point in order to cover the full domain name space.

The default trust model consists in the root zone as a security entry point, and no zones being considered as unsecured.

7.1.2. Trust Model Bootstrapping

The purpose of the boostrapping step is clearly to securely retrieve DNSKEY as well as DS RRsets with a valid and authentic RDATA to implement the trust model (see Section 7.1.1). Authentic data includes data that are up-to-date at the time these are requested, provided with securely and verified. In particular the TA MUST NOT be retrieved from a local source that is not known to be up to date. This typically includes software or any local store of data for which there is not a dedicated and automated updating system. Similarly, TA MUST NOT be retrieved from untrusted communication such as a DNS resolution that cannot be verified or validated.

The authenticity of the RDATA is usually based on the authentication of the source which can take multiple forms, but the principle is that a chain of signature ends up being validated by a trusted key. For TA that are not the root zone KSK, DNSSEC may be used to retrieve and validate the TA. Note that such means to validate the authenticity, the TA as a subdomain mostly prevents potential disruptions of the parent domains. In many cases, an alternative trusted source will be preferred such as TLS which is likely to rely on the Web PKI, or the signature of a file.

Although some bootstrapping mechanisms to securely retrieve publish [RFC7958] and retrieve [UNBOUND-ANCHOR] the Root Zone Trust Anchor have been defined, it is believed these mechanisms should be extended to other KSKs or Trust Anchors. Such bootstrapping process enables a DRO to start a DNSSEC resolver from a configuration file, that reflects the trust model of the DRO.


  • DRO SHOULD only rely on TA associated with a bootstrapping mechanism. IANA Trust Anchor Bootstrapping

For validators that may be used on the global public Internet (with "may be" referring to general purpose, general release code), handling the IANA managed root zone KSK trust anchor is a consideration.

The IANA managed root zone KSK is an operationally significant trust point in the global public Internet. Attention to the trust anchor for this point is paramount. Trust anchor management ought to recognize that the majority of operators deploying DNSSEC validators will need to explicitly or implicitly rely on this trust anchor. Trust anchor management needs to recognize that there may be other trust anchors of interest to operators. Besides deployments in networks other than the global public Internet (hence a different root), operators may want to configure other trust points.

The IANA managed root zone KSK is managed and published as described in "DNSSEC Trust Anchor Publication for the Root Zone" [RFC7598]. That document is written as specific to that trust point. Other trust points may adopt the technique describe (or may use other approaches).

This represents a consideration for implementations. On one hand, operators will place special emphasis on how the root zone DNSSEC KSK is managed. On the other hand, implementations ought to accommodate trust anchors in a general manner, despite the odds that other trust anchors will not be configured in a specific deployment.

Because of this, it is recommended that implementations make the root zone trust anchor obvious to the operator while still enabling configuration of general trust points.

7.1.3. Configuration Generation

The generation of a configuration file associated to the TA is expected to be implementation independent. The necessity of tweaking the data depending of the software implementer or eventually the software version introduces a vector for configuration errors.

7.1.4. DNSSEC Resolver Instantiation


  • DNS resolver MUST validate the TA before starting the DNSSEC resolver, and a failure of TA validity check MUST prevent the DNSSEC resolver to be started. Validation of the TA includes coherence between out-out band values, values stored in the DNS as well as corresponding DS RRsets.

7.2. Trust Anchor Update

Updating the TA reflects the evolution of the trust. It is important to understand that this section does not consider the trust model to be updated by the DRO. This has been defined in section Section 7.1. Instead, it considers the evolution over time of the instantiation of the trust model, that is the update of the values associated to the TA. Such updates need to be operated in a reliable and trusted way.

The value associated to the TA may be updated over time which is part of the maintenance of the configuration and needs to be performed by the DNSSEC resolver without any intervention of the DRO. This is the purpose of this section.

TA update is expected to be transparent to the DRO (see Section 7.2.1. However, a DRO MAY wish to ensure its resolvers operate according to the provisioned configurations and are updated normally (see Section 7.2.2. This includes for a DRO the ability to check which TA are in used as well as to resolve in collaboration of authoritative servers and report the used TAs.

7.2.1. Automated Updates to DNSSEC Trust Anchors

Trust is inherently a matter of an operations policy. As such, a DRO will need to be able to update the list of Trust Anchors. TA updates are not expected to be handled manually. This introduces a potentially huge vector for configuration errors, due to human intervention as well as potential misunderstanding of ongoing operations.


7.2.2. Automated Trust Anchor Check

A DRO SHOULD regularly check the trust anchor used by the DNSSEC resolver is up-to-date and that values used by the resolvers are conform to the ones in the configuration (see Section 7.1). Such check is designated as TA health check.

Note that retrieving in an automated way the value of the TA removes old values from the configuration and ensures that resolvers are always started with up-to-date values. In the case of a key roll over, the resolver is moving from an old value to an up-to date value. This up-to-date value does not need to survive reboot, and there is no need to update the configuration file of the running instances - configuration is updated by a separate process. To put it in other words, the updated value of the TA is only expected to be stored in the resolver's memory. Avoiding the configuration file to be updated prevents old configuration file to survive to writing error on read-only file systems.

The TA used by a resolver may be part of a configuration parameter as well as part of an internal state of the resolver. It is NOT RECOMMENDED a DRO accesses configuration or internal state of a resolver as it may open the resolver to other vulnerabilities and provides privileged access to a potential attacker.


  • DRO SHOULD enable "Signaling Trust Anchor Knowledge in DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC)" [RFC8145] to provide visibility to the TA used by the resolver. The TA can be queried using a DNSKEY query. The channel MAY be protected and restricted to the DRO.

Note also that [RFC8145] does not only concern Trust Anchor but is instead generic to DNSKEY RRsets. As a result, unless for the root zone, it is not possible to determine if the KSK/ZSK or DS is a Trust Anchor or a KSK/ZSK obtained from regular DNSSEC resolutions.

TA health check includes validating DNSKEY RRsets and associated DS RRsets in the resolver, on the DNS authoritative servers as well as those obtained out-of-band. TA health check results MUST be logged. The check SHOULD evaluate if the mismatch resulted from an ongoing normal roll over, a potential emergency key roll over, failed roll over or any other envisioned cases. Conflicts are not inherently a problem as some keys may be withheld from distribution via the DNS. A failed key roll over or any other abnormal situation MUST trigger an alarm.


  • A DRO SHOULD regularly run TA health checks.

If the mismatch is due to a failed key roll-over, this SHOULD be considered as a bug by the DRO. The DRO MUST restart the resolver with updated TA.


  • A DRO SHOULD be able to check the status of a TA as defined in Section 3 of [RFC7583].

8. Negative Trust Anchors Related Recommendations

When the DNSSEC Resolver is not able to validate signatures because a key or DS has been published with an error, the DNSSEC Operator MAY temporarily disable the signature check for that key until the time the error is addressed. This is performed using NTA[RFC7646]. NTA represents the only permitted intervention in the resolving process for a DRO.

NTA are considered as temporary fix for a known unsecured domain, which is different from an TA that would not be trusted. The designation of NTA might be misleading, but NTA are not expected to be part of the trust model. This does not prevent a DRO to provision NTA as a configuration parameters NTA. The management of the configuration SHOULD be automated as described in Section 7.1.

Handling NTA is described in [RFC7646] and a DRO SHOULD follow these guidelines. The intent of this section is to position these guidelines toward the operational recommendations provided in this document.



Note that adding a Negative Trust Anchor only requires the domain name to be specified. Note also that NTA can disable any sort of DNSKEY and is not restricted to TA.

A failure in signaling validation is associated to a mismatch between the key and the signature. DNSKEY/DS RRsets for TA have a higher level of trust then regular KSK/ZSK. In addition, DRO are likely to have specific communication channel with TA maintainer which eases trouble shooting.

A signature validation failure is either an attack or a failure in the signing operation on the authoritative servers. The DRO is expected to confirm this off line before introducing the NTA. This is likely to happen via a human confirmation. As a result here are the following recommendations:


11. Cryptography Deprecation Recommendations

As mentioned in [RFC8247] and [RFC8221] cryptography used one day is expected over the time to be replaced by new and more robust cryptographic mechanisms. In the case of DNSSEC signature protocols are likely to be updated over time. In order to anticipate the sunset of one of the signature scheme, a DNSSEC validator may be willing to estimate the impact of deprecating one signature scheme.

Currently [RFC6975] provides the ability for a DNSSEC validator to announce an authoritative server the supported signature schemes. However, a DNSSEC validator is not able to determine other than by requesting and monitoring DNSKEY RRsets as well as RRSIG. These RRsets are received by enabling DNSSEC validation by default which is obviously the case for DNSSEC validator.

To safely deprecate one signature scheme, the DNSSEC validator operator is expected to follow the recommendation below:


12. Invalid Reporting Recommendations

A DNSSEC validator receiving a DNS response cannot make the difference between receiving an non-secure response versus an attack. Dropping DNSSEC fields by a misconfigured middle boxes, such as DS, RRRSIG is considered as an attack. A DNSSEC validator is expected to perform secure DNS resolution and as such protects its stub client. An invalid response may be the result of an attack or a misconfiguration, and the DNSSEC validator may play an important role in sharing this information with the authoritative server or domain name owner.


13. IANA Considerations

There are no IANA consideration for this document.

14. Security Considerations

The recommendations listed in this document have two goals. First ensuring the DNSSEC validator has appropriated information to appropriately perform DNSSEC validation. Second, monitoring the necessary elements that would enable a DNSSEC validator operator to ease a potential analysis. The recommendations provide very limited ability for a DNSSEC validator operator to alter or directly interfere on the validation process and the main purpose in providing the recommendations was to let the protocol run as much as possible. Providing inappropriate information can lead to misconfiguring the DNSSEC validator, and thus disrupting the DNSSEC resolution service. As a result, enabling the setting of configuration parameters by a third party may open a wide surface of attacks. In addition, such changes may lead to unexpected corner cases that would result in making analysis and trouble shooting very hard.

As an appropriate time value is necessary to perform signature check, an attacker may provide rogue time value to prevent the DNSSEC validator to check signatures.

An attacker may also affect the resolution service by regularly asking the DNSSEC validator to flush the KSK/ZSK from its cache. All associated data will also be flushed. This generates additional DNSSEC resolution and additional validations, as RRSet that were cached require a DNSSEC resolution over the Internet. This affects the resolution service by slowing down responses, and increases the load on the DNSSEC validator.

An attacker may ask the DNSSEC validator to consider a rogue KSK/ZSK, thus hijacking the DNS zone. Similarly, an attacker may inform the DNSSEC validator not to trust a given KSK in order to prevent DNSSEC validation to be performed.

An attacker (cf. Section 7) can advertise a "known insecure" KSK or ZSK is "back to secure" to prevent signature check to be performed correctly.

As a result, information considered by the DNSSEC validator should be from a trusted party. This trust party should have been authenticated, and the channel used to exchange the information should also be protected and authenticated.

The software used for DNSSEC validator is not immune to bugs and may become vulnerable independently of how it is operated. As a result a DRO SHOULD NOT depend on a single implementation or version of a given software and SHOULD instead run at least two independent pieces of software.

15. Contributors

We would like to thank very much Edward Lewis without who the document might probably not exist.

16. Acknowledgment

The need to address DNSSEC issues on the resolver occured during multiple discussions including among others Ted Lemon, Ralph Weber, Normen Kowalewski, Mikael Abrahamsson, Jim Gettys, Paul Wouters, Joe Abley and Michael Richardson.

17. References

17.1. Normative References

Huque, S., Vixie, P., and R. Dolmans, "Delegation Revalidation by DNS Resolvers", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-dnsop-ns-revalidation-02, , <>.
Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, , <>.
Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. Rose, "DNS Security Introduction and Requirements", RFC 4033, DOI 10.17487/RFC4033, , <>.
Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. Rose, "Protocol Modifications for the DNS Security Extensions", RFC 4035, DOI 10.17487/RFC4035, , <>.
StJohns, M., "Automated Updates of DNS Security (DNSSEC) Trust Anchors", STD 74, RFC 5011, DOI 10.17487/RFC5011, , <>.
Kolkman, O., Mekking, W., and R. Gieben, "DNSSEC Operational Practices, Version 2", RFC 6781, DOI 10.17487/RFC6781, , <>.
Crocker, S. and S. Rose, "Signaling Cryptographic Algorithm Understanding in DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC)", RFC 6975, DOI 10.17487/RFC6975, , <>.
Morris, S., Ihren, J., Dickinson, J., and W. Mekking, "DNSSEC Key Rollover Timing Considerations", RFC 7583, DOI 10.17487/RFC7583, , <>.
Ebersman, P., Kumari, W., Griffiths, C., Livingood, J., and R. Weber, "Definition and Use of DNSSEC Negative Trust Anchors", RFC 7646, DOI 10.17487/RFC7646, , <>.
Wessels, D., Kumari, W., and P. Hoffman, "Signaling Trust Anchor Knowledge in DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC)", RFC 8145, DOI 10.17487/RFC8145, , <>.
Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC 2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174, , <>.
Wouters, P., Migault, D., Mattsson, J., Nir, Y., and T. Kivinen, "Cryptographic Algorithm Implementation Requirements and Usage Guidance for Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) and Authentication Header (AH)", RFC 8221, DOI 10.17487/RFC8221, , <>.
Nir, Y., Kivinen, T., Wouters, P., and D. Migault, "Algorithm Implementation Requirements and Usage Guidance for the Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2 (IKEv2)", RFC 8247, DOI 10.17487/RFC8247, , <>.
Kumari, W., Hunt, E., Arends, R., Hardaker, W., and D. Lawrence, "Extended DNS Errors", RFC 8914, DOI 10.17487/RFC8914, , <>.

17.2. Informative References

Levigneron, V., "ENT was here !!!", n.d., <>.
Hardaker, W. and W. Kumari, "Security Considerations for RFC5011 Publishers", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-dnsop-rfc5011-security-considerations-13, , <>.
Mrugalski, T., Troan, O., Farrer, I., Perreault, S., Dec, W., Bao, C., Yeh, L., and X. Deng, "DHCPv6 Options for Configuration of Softwire Address and Port-Mapped Clients", RFC 7598, DOI 10.17487/RFC7598, , <>.
Abley, J., Schlyter, J., Bailey, G., and P. Hoffman, "DNSSEC Trust Anchor Publication for the Root Zone", RFC 7958, DOI 10.17487/RFC7958, , <>.
"unbound-anchor - Unbound anchor utility", n.d., <>.

Authors' Addresses

Daniel Migault
8275 Trans Canada Route
Saint Laurent, QC 4S 0B6
Dan York